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As an in vivo model for studying human MHC (HLA) class I-restricted CTL responses to viral infection, we established a series of HLA Tg mice expressing HLA-A2, -B7 or -B27 human/mouse hybrid genes on a background deficient for H2 class I (Tg HLA(hyb)/H2 class I DKO). To determine whether CTL recognition of influenza A (flu) infection in Tg HLA-A2(hyb)/H2(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic has claimed over 20 million lives, with 38.6 million people worldwide currently infected (2009 AIDS Epidemic Update by UNAIDS/WHO, www.unaids.org), and will continue to contribute to human morbidity and mortality. The number of people living with HIV-1 continues to rise worldwide because of high rates(More)
Latently HIV-1-infected cells are recognized as the last barrier toward viral eradication and cure. To purge these cells, we combined a provirus stimulant with a blocker of human CD59, a key member of the regulators of complement activation, to trigger Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis. Provirus stimulants including prostratin and histone deacetylase(More)
The vast majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have pain syndrome, which has a significant impact on their quality of life. The underlying causes of HIV-1-associated pain are not likely attributable to direct viral infection of the nervous system due to the lack of evidence of neuronal infection by HIV-1. However, HIV-1(More)
In order to determine whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) contain proviral DNA or double-stranded replicative forms of TT virus (TTV) and to define which cell subset harbors TTV, we analyzed 126 PBMC DNA samples by PCR, using the NG059/NG061/NG063 and the T801/T935 primer sets. TTV sequences were detected in nearly 20% (25/126) of PBMC DNA(More)
Poxviruses have been extensively used as a promising vehicle to efficiently deliver a variety of antigens in mammalian hosts to induce immune responses against infectious diseases and cancer. Using recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) and canarypox virus (ALVAC) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or multiple HIV-1 gene products, we studied the(More)
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation has been recognized as an important factor in monocyte activation and contributing to AIDS pathogenesis with elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, as a marker for microbial translocation, seen in advanced HIV disease. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to assess monocyte activation in vitro by LPS and(More)
A novel and simple method for improving the detection limit of conventional Raman spectra using a micro-Raman system and picoliter volumes is presented. A micro-cavity in a reflecting metal substrate uses various mechanisms that collectively improve the entire Raman spectrum from the sample. A micro-cavity with a radius of several micrometers acts as a very(More)
Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) can trigger an intense local inflammatory response at the site of infection, yet there is little specific immune response or development of immune memory. Gonococcal surface epitopes are known to undergo antigenic variation; however, this is unlikely to explain the weak immune response to infection since(More)
Although mice transgenic (Tg) for human MHC (HLA) class I alleles could provide an important model for characterizing HLA-restricted viral and tumor Ag CTL epitopes, the extent to which Tg mouse T cells become HLA restricted in the presence of endogenous H2 class I and recognize the same peptides as in HLA allele-matched humans is not clear. We previously(More)