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Arachidonic acid (AA) has recently been shown to influence various cellular functions in the central nervous system. Here we report that AA increases, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H]glucose ([3H]2DG) uptake in primary cultures of astrocytes prepared from the cerebral cortex of neonatal mice. This effect is mimicked by an(More)
In recent years a vast array of experimental evidence has indicated the presence of functional receptors for neurotransmitters on nonneuronal cells, in particular astrocytes. The two neurotransmitters vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and noradrenaline (NA) exert profound, receptor-mediated, metabolic actions on astrocytes. Thus both neurotransmitters(More)
BACKGROUND The recent literature suggests that free radicals and reactive oxygen species may account for many pathologies, including those of the nervous system. MATERIALS AND METHODS The influence of various reactive oxygen species on the rate of glutamate uptake by astrocytes was investigated on monolayers of primary cultures of mouse cortical(More)
— Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and its functional applications (fMRI) play increasing roles in diagnostic and basic neuroscience. In contrast to the high demand for MR-compatible devices and robotic systems in both academic and practical fields, MR-compatibility has been a tough hurdle for developers. Since traditional electromagnetic components(More)
PURPOSE Longitudinal studies to evaluate the effect of rehabilitative therapies require an objective, reproducible and quantitative means for testing function in vivo. An fMRI assessment tool for upper extremity related brain activation using an MRI-compatible manipulandum was developed and tested for use in neurorehabilitation research. METHODS Fifteen(More)
FIV is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes neurologic disorders which are remarkably similar to those found in HIV-1 infected people. Using feline neuron cultures, we investigated the potential of both FIV virus and FIV-Env protein to cause neuronal damage through the excitotoxicity mechanism. The neuron swelling and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)(More)
PURPOSE Robotic and mechatronic devices that work compatibly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied in diagnostic MRI, image-guided surgery, neurorehabilitation and neuroscience. MRI-compatible mechatronic systems must address the challenges imposed by the scanner's electromagnetic fields. We have developed objective quantitative evaluation(More)
The binding characteristics of a monoiodinated form of vasoactive intestinal peptide (M-[125I]VIP) to the membranes of astrocytes, intraparenchymal microvessels and synaptosomes were analyzed in mouse cerebral cortex. Binding to astrocytes, studied in primary cultures, indicates the presence of a single class of high affinity binding sites with a Kd of 3.3(More)