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Adaptation of parameters and operators represents one of the recent most important and promising areas of research in evolutionary computations; it is a form of designing self-configuring algorithms that acclimatize to suit the problem in hand. Here, our interests are on a recent breed of hybrid evolutionary algorithms typically known as adaptive memetic(More)
A key component in the response of the nervous system to injury is the proliferation and switch to a "proinflammatory" phenotype by microglia (microgliosis). In situations where the blood-brain barrier is intact, microglial numbers increase via the proliferation and chemotaxis of resident microglia; however, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors(More)
Following peripheral nerve injury microglia accumulate within the spinal cord and adopt a proinflammatory phenotype a process which contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. We have recently shown that neuregulin-1, a growth factor released following nerve injury, activates erbB 2, 3, and 4 receptors on microglia and stimulates proliferation,(More)
In conventional digital VLSI design, one usually assumes that a usable circuit/system should always provide definite and accurate results. But in fact, such perfect operations are seldom needed in our non digital worldly experiences. The world accepts " analog computation, " which generates " good enough " results rather than totally accurate results [1].(More)
STREX alternative-exon adds to Slo channel a phosphorylation sequence that can invert protein kinase A (PKA) regulation from excitatory to inhibitory. Because pregnancy switches Slo responsiveness to PKA from inhibitory to excitatory, we hypothesized that STREX expression diminishes with pregnancy and is regulated by sex hormones. Different from total-rSlo,(More)
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) plays a crucial role in axoglial signaling during the development of the peripheral nervous system, but its importance in adulthood after peripheral nerve injury remains unclear. We used single-neuron labeling with inducible Cre-mediated knock-out animals, which enabled visualization of a subset of adult myelinated sensory and(More)
Neuregulin 1 acts as an axonal signal that regulates multiple aspects of Schwann cell development including the survival and migration of Schwann cell precursors, the ensheathment of axons and subsequent elaboration of the myelin sheath. To examine the role of this factor in remyelination and repair following nerve injury, we ablated neuregulin 1 in the(More)
Axonal regeneration is enhanced by the prior ;conditioning' of peripheral nerve lesions. Here we show that Xenopus dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with attached peripheral nerves (PN-DRG) can be conditioned in vitro, thereafter showing enhanced neurotrophin-induced axonal growth similar to preparations conditioned by axotomy in vivo. Actinomycin D inhibits axonal(More)
Transgenic mouse models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been critical in furthering our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, such models generally overexpress the mutant protein, which may give rise to phenotypes not directly relevant to the disorder. Here, we have analysed a novel mouse model that has a point(More)