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SCF ubiquitin ligases control various processes by marking regulatory proteins for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. To illuminate how SCF complexes are regulated, we sought proteins that interact with the human SCF component CUL1. The COP9 signalosome (CSN), a suppressor of plant photomorphogenesis, associated with multiple cullins and promoted cleavage of(More)
Arabidopsis COP1 acts as a light-inactivable repressor of photomorphogenic development, but its molecular mode of action remains unclear. Here, we show that COP1 negatively regulates HY5, a bZIP protein and a positive regulator of photomorphogenic development. Both in vitro and in vivo assays indicate that COP1 interacts directly and specifically with HY5.(More)
The pleiotropic CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC (COP), DEETIOLATED (DET), and FUSCA (FUS) loci are essential regulatory genes involved in the light control of seedling developmental patterns in Arabidopsis. Although COP1, DET1, COP9, and FUS6 (also called COP11) have been cloned, their biochemical activities and interactions remain elusive. We have recently(More)
The Arabidopsis HY5 gene has been defined genetically as a positive regulator of photomorphogenesis and recently has been shown to encode a basic leucine zipper type of transcription factor. Here, we report that HY5 is constitutively nuclear localized and is involved in light regulation of transcriptional activity of the promoters containing the G-box, a(More)
We have studied the roles of PhyA, PhyB and CRY1 photoreceptors and the downstream light-signaling components, COP1 and DET1, in mediating high-irradiance light-controlled activity of promoters containing synthetic light-responsive elements (LRE). Promoters with paired LREs were able to respond to a wide spectrum of light through multiple photoreceptors,(More)
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is involved in multiple developmental processes. It interacts with SCF ubiquitin ligases and deconjugates Nedd8/Rub1 from cullins (deneddylation). CSN is highly expressed in Arabidopsis floral tissues. To investigate the role of CSN in flower development, we examined the expression pattern of CSN in developing flowers. We report(More)
Arabidopsis COP9 is a component of a large protein complex that is essential for the light control of a developmental switch and whose conformation or size is modulated by light. The complex is acidic, binds heparin, and is localized within the nucleus. Biochemical purification of the complex to near homogeneity revealed that it contains 12 distinct(More)
The COP9 complex, genetically identified in Arabidopsis as a repressor of photomorphogenesis, is composed of multiple subunits including COP9, FUS6 (also known as COP11) and the Arabidopsis JAB1 homolog 1 (AJH1) ([1-3]; unpublished observations). We have previously demonstrated the existence of the mammalian counterpart of the COP9 complex and purified the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nowadays the mechanism of homosexuality is little known. Few studies have been carried out to explore the brain functional changes of homosexual men during sexual arousal. We used functional MR imaging (fMRI) to determine whether the patterns of brain activation in homosexual and heterosexual men differed during visually evoked sexual(More)
The evolutionarily conserved constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1) is a RING and WD40 protein that functions as a substrate receptor of CULLIN4-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1)-based E3 ubiquitin ligases in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, COP1 is a central repressor of photomorphogenesis in the form of COP1-suppressor of PHYA (SPA)(More)