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A betA gene encoding choline dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli was transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton plants exhibited improved tolerance to chilling due to accumulation of glycinebetaine (GB). The results of our experiment showed that GB contents of leaves of transgenic lines 1, 3,(More)
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders, affecting 0.5-1.0% of the population worldwide. Its pathology, attributed to defects in synaptic transmission, remains elusive. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene, which encodes a coiled-coil protein, dysbindin, is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Our(More)
Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoid compounds. As a group of important secondary metabolites, they perform several key biological functions in plants. Anthocyanins also play beneficial health roles as potentially protective factors against cancer and heart disease. To elucidate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted(More)
Anthocyanins have several biological functions in plants and are beneficial to human health. To elucidate the metabolic profile of anthocyanins and determine the genetic basis controlling anthocyanin accumulation in zicaitai (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. purpurea), we conducted anthocyanin profile characterization and quantitative trait locus (QTL)(More)
Astrocytes release a variety of signaling molecules including glutamate, D-serine, and ATP in a regulated manner. Although the functions of these molecules, from regulating synaptic transmission to controlling specific behavior, are well documented, the identity of their cellular compartment(s) is still unclear. Here we set out to study vesicular exocytosis(More)
Our previous observations showed that several stimuli, including high-K(+) solution, glutamate, and voltage pulses, induce somatic noradrenaline (NA) secretion from locus ceruleus (LC) neurons. Hypocretin (orexin), a hypothalamic peptide critical for normal wakefulness, has been shown to evoke NA release from the axon terminals of LC neurons. Here, we used(More)
UNLABELLED The zebrafish is a relatively new model organism and has become a valuable tool in genetic, developmental, and pharmacological researches. Zebrafish larvae, compared with adult, are particularly suitable for high-throughput screening of drug effects. AB and TU are well established in-bred zebrafish strains. The behavioral responses to acute(More)
Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) antagonist, is a convulsant drug, known to induce anxiety and seizures in zebrafish. Changes in the mobility of zebrafish under light-dark transitions reflect anxiety level, serving as a useful behavioral readout. The effects of PTZ treatment have yet to be assayed in this manner. Zebrafish larvae (AB strain)(More)
The question of whether a common mechanism mediates both aversive and rewarding drug-paired cues is still unclear. In this study, we used a place preference conditioning paradigm to train rats to associate 1 chamber with morphine and the other chamber with saline. On the test day, rats were divided into those displaying conditioned place preferences (CPP)(More)
The medial thalamus contains abundant mu-opioid receptors and is activated by acute morphine administration. However, the role of the medial thalamus in the rewarding effects of morphine is unclear. The present study examined whether mu-opioid receptors of the medial thalamus influenced the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place(More)