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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common kidney cancer and has very few mutations that are shared between different patients. To better understand the intratumoral genetics underlying mutations of ccRCC, we carried out single-cell exome sequencing on a ccRCC tumor and its adjacent kidney tissue. Our data indicate that this tumor was(More)
In hippocampal pyramidal cells, a single action potential (AP) or a burst of APs is followed by a medium afterhyperpolarization (mAHP, lasting approximately 0.1 s). The currents underlying the mAHP are considered to regulate excitability and cause early spike frequency adaptation, thus dampening the response to sustained excitatory input relative to(More)
Tumor heterogeneity presents a challenge for inferring clonal evolution and driver gene identification. Here, we describe a method for analyzing the cancer genome at a single-cell nucleotide level. To perform our analyses, we first devised and validated a high-throughput whole-genome single-cell sequencing method using two lymphoblastoid cell line single(More)
Nanoparticles containing magnetic materials, such as magnetite (Fe3O4), are particularly useful for imaging and separation techniques. As these nanoparticles are generally considered to be biologically and chemically inert, they are typically coated with metal catalysts, antibodies or enzymes to increase their functionality as separation agents. Here, we(More)
Neuronal potassium (K(+)) channels are usually regarded as largely inhibitory, i.e. reducing excitability. Here we show that BK-type calcium-activated K(+) channels enhance high-frequency firing and cause early spike frequency adaptation in neurons. By combining slice electrophysiology and computational modelling, we investigated functions of BK channels in(More)
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK, also called Maxi-K or Slo channels) are widespread in the vertebrate nervous system, but their functional roles in synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. By combining electrophysiology and immunogold cytochemistry, we demonstrate the existence of functional BK channels in(More)
M-current (I(M)) plays a key role in regulating neuronal excitability. Mutations in Kv7/KCNQ subunits, the molecular correlates of I(M), are associated with a familial human epilepsy syndrome. Kv7/KCNQ subunits are widely expressed, and I(M) has been recorded in somata of several types of neurons, but the subcellular distribution of M-channels remains(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: BIM BIM-server Multidisciplinary collaboration Operational technical requirements Support technical requirements Most complex projects in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industries involve multidisciplinary collaboration and the exchange of large building data set. Traditionally, the collaboration(More)
In current study, cancer stem-like cells in the murine melanoma B16F10 cells were investigated. CD phenotypes of the B16F10 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the specific CD phenotype cells from the B16F10 cells were isolated by MACS. Then we used colony formation assay in soft agar media, the cell growth assay in serum-free culture media as well(More)
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are frequently used in biomedical applications, yet their toxic potential is still a major concern. While most studies of biosafety focus on cellular responses after exposure to nanomaterials, little is reported to analyze reactions on the surface of nanoparticles as a source of cytotoxicity. Here we report that different(More)