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The upper side of the angiosperm leaf is specialized for efficient capture of sunlight whereas the lower side is specialized for gas exchange. In Arabidopsis, the establishment of polarity in the leaf probably requires the generation and perception of positional information along the radial (adaxial versus abaxial or central versus peripheral) dimension of(More)
As a label-free alternative of conventional flow cytometry, chip-based impedance measurement for single cell analysis has attracted increasing attentions in recent years. In this paper, we designed a T-shape microchannel and fabricated a pair of gold electrodes located horizontally on each side of the microchannel using a transfer printing method. Instant(More)
Dominant mutations in the Arabidopsis PHABULOSA (PHB) and PHAVOLUTA (PHV) transcription factor genes cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial leaf fates by altering a microRNA complementary site present in processed PHB and PHV mRNAs but not in the corresponding genomic DNA. phb-1d mutants accumulate excess PHB transcript throughout the leaf primordium,(More)
Droplet-based microfluidics has raised a lot of interest recently due to its wide applications to screening biological/chemical assays with high throughput. Despite the advances on droplet-based assays involving cells, gene delivery methods that are compatible with the droplet platform have been lacking. In this report, we demonstrate a simple microfluidic(More)
AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are essential for synaptic plasticity. ANQX, a photoreactive AMPA receptor antagonist, is an important biological probe used to irreversibly inactivate AMPA receptors. Here, using X-ray crystallography and mass spectroscopy, we report that ANQX forms two major products in the presence of the(More)
Extensive biomedical applications of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their safety and compatibility in biological systems. The aim of this study was to compare the biosafety and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prepared with HEPES buffer, which is popular for cell culture, and sodium citrate, a frequent reducing agent. From experimental(More)
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) refer to cells that detach from a primary tumor, circulate in the blood stream, and may settle down at a secondary site and form metastases. The detection and characterization of CTCs are clinically useful for diagnosis and prognosis purposes. However, there has been very little work on purging CTCs from the blood. In this(More)
Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as(More)
Biomechanical properties of cells yield important information on the disease state of cells such as transformation and metastasis. Screening of cells based on their biomechanical properties provides rapid tools for label-free diagnosis and staging of cancers. However, existent single-cell techniques for measuring biomechanical properties suffer from low(More)
Extraction of intracellular proteins from cells is often an important first step for conducting molecular biology and proteomics studies. Although ultrasensitive detection and analytical technology at the single molecule level is becoming routine, protein extraction techniques have not followed suit and still call for complete lysis that leads to cell(More)