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We used dynamic CT to identify two different time constants of lung aeration and their individual contribution to the total increase in cross-sectional lung area in healthy and experimentally damaged lungs. In five healthy pigs, inflation and deflation between 0 and 50 cm H2O was imposed during dynamic (250 ms/image) CT acquisition, and repeated after(More)
Closed loop control of ventilation is traditionally based on end-tidal or mean expired CO2. The controlled variables are the respiratory rate RR and the tidal volume VT. Neither patient size or lung mechanics were considered in previous approaches. Also the modes were not suitable for spontaneously breathing subjects. This report presents a new approach to(More)
Organic cation transporters (OCT) are responsible for the uptake and intracellular inactivation of a broad spectrum of endogenous substrates and detoxification of xenobiotics and chemotherapeutics. The transporters became pharmaceutically interesting, because OCTs are determinants of the cytotoxicity of platin derivates and the transport activity has been(More)
We present a new method to determine in vivo the temporal evolution of intrapulmonary oxygen concentrations by functional lung imaging with hyperpolarized (3)Helium ((3)He-->). Single-breath, single-bolus visualization of (3)He--> administered to the airspaces is used to analyze nuclear spin relaxation caused by the local oxygen partial pressure p(O(2))(t).(More)
Inhalation of hyperpolarized (3)He allows magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ventilated airspaces. (3)He hyperpolarization decays more rapidly when interacting with paramagnetic O(2). We describe a method for in vivo determination of intrapulmonary O(2) concentrations ([O(2)]) based on MRI analysis of the fate of measured amounts of inhaled hyperpolarized(More)
MRI with hyperpolarized helium-3 ((3)He) provides high-resolution imaging of ventilated airspaces. The first aim of this (3)He-study was to compare observations of localized signal defects in healthy smokers and non-smokers. A second aim was to describe relationships between parameters of lung function, volume of inspired (3)He and signal-to-noise ratio.(More)
BACKGROUND Fast dynamic computed tomography (dCT) has been used to assess regional dynamics of lung inflation and deflation processes. The aim of this study was to relate ventilation-induced changes in lung density distribution, as measured over several respiratory cycles by dCT, to oxygenation and shunt fraction in a lavage acute respiratory distress(More)
A potential risk of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is incomplete mask seal, which causes air leakage or insufflation of air into the stomach. The objective of the present study was to assess respiratory mechanics, quantify air leakage, and measure gastric air insufflation in patients ventilated via the LMA. Thirty patients were studied after induction of(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled single center study was to evaluate an early steroid-free immunosuppression in liver transplant patients. METHODS From March 2000 to October 2004, 110 patients were included. All patients received tacrolimus and steroids during the first 2 weeks after orthotopic liver(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE This prospective observational study analyses cardiovascular changes in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during transition from pressure-controlled ventilation to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), using transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) and invasive haemodynamic monitoring. METHODS(More)