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Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These guidelines for its management have been built on the previous Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines from 2000 and include new sections. There is a discussion of the management of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in 3 risk groups: (1) human(More)
BACKGROUND Combination antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors has transformed HIV infection from a terminal condition into one that is manageable. However, the complexity of regimens makes adherence to therapy difficult. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of different levels of adherence to therapy on virologic, immunologic, and clinical outcome; to(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical characteristics, risks, and outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with zygomycosis in the era of modern immunosuppressive and newer antifungal agent use have not been defined. METHODS In a matched case-controlled study, SOT recipients with zygomycosis were prospectively studied. The primary outcome measure was success(More)
Variables influencing the risk of dissemination and outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection were assessed in 111 organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis in a prospective, multicenter, international study. Sixty-one percent (68/111) of the patients had disseminated infection. The risk of disseminated cryptococcosis was significantly higher for(More)
To discern whether the characteristics and outcome of invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients have evolved during the past decade, 26 patients who underwent transplantation during 1990-1995 (known as "the earlier cohort") were compared with 20 patients who underwent transplantation during 1998-2001 (known as "the later cohort"). Twenty-three(More)
The clinical utility of Platelia trade mark Aspergillus galactomannan antigen for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis was prospectively assessed in 70 consecutive lung transplant recipients. Sera were collected twice weekly and tested for galactomannan. Invasive aspergillosis was documented in 17.1% (12/70) of the patients. Using the generalized(More)
Inappropriate antibiotic use for pulmonary infiltrates is common in the intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to devise an approach that would minimize unnecessary antibiotic use, recognizing that a gold standard for the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia does not exist. In a randomized trial, clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) (Pugin, J., R.(More)
Aspergillus infections are occurring with an increasing frequency in transplant recipients. Notable changes in the epidemiologic characteristics of this infection have occurred; these include a change in risk factors and later onset of infection. Management of invasive aspergillosis continues to be challenging, and the mortality rate, despite the use of(More)
To determine the spectrum and impact of mycelial fungal infections, particularly those due to non-Aspergillus molds, 53 liver and heart transplant recipients with invasive mycelial infections were prospectively identified in a multicenter study. Invasive mycelial infections were due to Aspergillus species in 69.8% of patients, to non-Aspergillus(More)
The study of regulatory networks in human pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans provides insights into host-pathogen interactions that may allow for correlation of gene expression patterns with clinical outcomes. In the present study, deletion of the cryptococcal copper-dependent transcription factor 1 (Cuf1) led to defects in growth and virulence(More)