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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
BACKGROUND The beta 3-adrenergic receptor is expressed in visceral adipose tissue and is thought to contribute to the regulation of the resting metabolic rate and lipolysis. METHODS To investigate whether mutations in the gene for the beta 3-adrenergic receptor predispose patients to obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we studied(More)
OBJECTIVE The etiology and pathogenesis of human inflammatory myopathies remain unclear. Findings of several studies suggest that the degree of inflammation does not correlate consistently with the severity of clinical disease or of structural changes in the muscle fibers, indicating that nonimmune pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of myositis.(More)
Lysosomes are ubiquitous intracellular organelles that have an acidic internal pH, and play crucial roles in cellular clearance. Numerous functions depend on normal lysosomes, including the turnover of cellular constituents, cholesterol homeostasis, downregulation of surface receptors, inactivation of pathogenic organisms, repair of the plasma membrane and(More)
A recently proposed therapeutic approach for lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) relies upon the ability of transcription factor EB (TFEB) to stimulate autophagy and induce lysosomal exocytosis leading to cellular clearance. This approach is particularly attractive in glycogen storage disease type II [a severe metabolic myopathy, Pompe disease (PD)] as the(More)
Glycogenosis type II (GSDII, Pompe disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (acid maltase, GAA). The enzyme degrades alpha -1,4 and alpha -1,6 linkages in glycogen, maltose, and isomaltose. Deficiency of the enzyme results in accumulation of glycogen within lysosomes and in cytoplasm(More)
We have used gene targeting to create a mouse model of glycogen storage disease type II, a disease in which distinct clinical phenotypes present at different ages. As in the severe human infantile disease (Pompe Syndrome), mice homozygous for disruption of the acid alpha-glucosidase gene (6(neo)/6(neo)) lack enzyme activity and begin to accumulate glycogen(More)
An autosomal recessive deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), type II glycogenosis, is genetically and clinically heterogeneous. The discovery of an enzyme-inactivating genomic deletion of exon 18 in three unrelated genetic compound patients--two infants and an adult--provided a rare opportunity to analyze the effect of the second mutation in patients(More)
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation. Most patients with FMF carry missense mutations in the C-terminal half of the pyrin protein. To study the physiologic role of pyrin, we generated mice expressing a truncated pyrin molecule that, similar to FMF patients, retains the full(More)
Deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) results in widespread cellular deposition of lysosomal glycogen manifesting as myopathy and cardiomyopathy. When GAA-/- mice were treated with rhGAA (20 mg/kg/week for up to 5 months), skeletal muscle cells took up little enzyme compared to liver and heart. Glycogen reduction was less than 50%, and some fibers(More)