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The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize with characteristic tumor formation and anthocyanin induction. Here, we show that anthocyanin biosynthesis is induced by the virulence promoting secreted effector protein Tin2. Tin2 protein functions inside plant cells where it interacts with maize protein kinase ZmTTK1. Tin2 masks a(More)
In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors.(More)
Non-trophic interactions are increasingly recognised as a key parameter of predator-prey interactions. In soil, predation by bacterivorous nematodes is a major selective pressure shaping soil bacterial communities, and many bacteria have evolved defence mechanisms such as toxicity. In this study, we show that extracellular secondary metabolites produced by(More)
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