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Studies of cellular immune responses to Cryptosporidium parvum have been limited in part by lack of suitable animal models. IL-12p40(-/-)mice are susceptible to initial infection with C. parvum but recover within 2 weeks, rendering the animals resistant to reinfection. Because the host responses that determine duration and severity of primary infection are(More)
In the present study, the gene expression of three multidrug resistance (MDR) and resistance-associated protein (MRP) transport proteins or efflux pumps was characterized and the phenotypic evidence for such pumps was demonstrated in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. A gradient for the fluorescent probe calcein was established between(More)
We studied three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (cgd1_1350, cgd7_4510, and cgd7_4520) of Cryptosporidium parvum that were identified to share a high level of homology with nucleotide binding domains of other parasitic ABC transporters and therefore could be potential candidates of efflux of drugs and/or contribute to the intrinsic resistance to(More)
Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, have demonstrated activity against several parasites and can augment the efficacy of other drugs by either increasing the uptake or decreasing the efflux of these drugs. We evaluated 11 of these compounds alone or in combination in order to test the hypothesis that flavonoids are effective against(More)
The contribution of cytokines IL-12, IL-18, IL-23, and IFN-gamma, and Stat1 signaling molecules involved in Th1 responses associated with host resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection was investigated in adult IL-12p40(-/-)mice. Host resistance to C. parvum infection was assessed in different mouse strains lacking IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23 genes. We(More)
Cryptosporidium parasites are a major cause of diarrhea and malnutrition in the developing world, a frequent cause of waterborne disease in the developed world, and a potential bioterrorism agent. Currently, available treatment is limited, and Cryptosporidium drug discovery remains largely unsuccessful. As a result, the pharmacokinetic properties required(More)
Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain SL3261 was used as an antigen delivery system for the oral immunization of mice against two Cryptosporidium parvum antigens, Cp23 and Cp40. Each antigen was subcloned into the pTECH1 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with highly immunogenic fragment C of(More)
The Cryptosporidium parvum acidic ribosomal protein P2 (CpP2) is an important immunodominant marker in C. parvum infection. In this study, the CpP2 antigen was evaluated as a vaccine candidate using a DNA vaccine model in adult C57BL/6 IL-12 knockout (KO) mice, which are susceptible to C. parvum infection. Our data show that subcutaneous immunization in the(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptosporidium is emerging as 1 of the 4 leading diarrheal pathogens in children in developing countries. Its infections in patients with AIDS can be fatal, whereas fully effective treatments are unavailable. The major goal of this study is to explore parasite fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) as a novel drug target. METHODS A(More)