Nina Langeland

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To assess the validity of the reference values for hematologic and immunologic indices currently used in Africa, we evaluated blood samples from 3,311 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Ugandans aged 1 week to 92 years. Erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels and mean corpuscular volume all significantly increased with age (P < 0.001) and(More)
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were present in high proportions of Escherichia coli (25% [9 of 36]) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (17% [9 of 52]) causing pediatric septicemia at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Patients with septicemia due to ESBL-producing organisms had a significantly higher fatality rate than those with non-ESBL isolates(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. METHODS This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted(More)
BACKGROUND Bloodstream infection is a common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and death in children. The impact of antimicrobial resistance and HIV infection on outcome is not firmly established. METHODS We assessed the incidence of bloodstream infection and risk factors for fatal outcome in a prospective cohort study of 1828 consecutive admissions of(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleuritis is difficult and better diagnostic tools are needed. New blood based interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) tests are promising, but sensitivity could be low in HIV positive patients. The IFN-gamma tests have not yet been validated for use in pleural fluid, a compartment with higher level of immune activation than in(More)
UNLABELLED Previous trials investigating the efficacy of treatment durations shorter than the standard of 24 weeks for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2/3 infections have yielded discordant results. The aims of this investigator-initiated phase III study were to compare the efficacy of 12 or 24 weeks of treatment and to identify patients suitable(More)
BACKGROUND Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. METHODS(More)
During the autumn and winter of 2004 and 2005, an extensive outbreak of waterborne giardiasis occurred in Bergen, Norway. Over 1,500 patients were diagnosed with giardiasis. Analysis of water from the implicated source revealed low numbers of Giardia cysts, but the initial contamination event probably occurred up to 10 weeks previously. While sewage leakage(More)
BACKGROUND Relatively few studies have been done in Tanzania to detect and classify diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains among children with diarrhea. This study aimed at investigating DEC among children in Dar es Salaam aged less than five years hospitalized due to acute/persistent diarrhea. METHODS DEC were isolated from stool samples collected(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among Gram-negative bacteria is on the increase. Presence of ESBL producing organisms has been reported to significantly affect the course and outcome of an infection. Therefore infections due to ESBL isolates(More)