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Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when(More)
Visualizing entire neuronal networks for analysis in the intact brain has been impossible up to now. Techniques like computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) do not yield cellular resolution, and mechanical slicing procedures are insufficient to achieve high-resolution reconstructions in three dimensions. Here we present an approach that(More)
The examination of tissue histology by light microscopy is a fundamental tool for investigating the structure and function of organs under normal and disease states. Many current techniques for tissue sectioning, imaging and analysis are time-consuming, and they present major limitations for 3D tissue reconstruction. The introduction of methods to achieve(More)
Studying regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is hampered by current histological and imaging techniques because they provide only partial information about axonal and glial reactions. Here we developed a tetrahydrofuran-based clearing procedure that renders fixed and unsectioned adult CNS tissue transparent and fully penetrable for optical(More)
Ultramicroscopy is a microscopical technique that allows optical sectioning and 3D reconstruction of biological and medical specimens. While in confocal microscopy specimen size is limited to several hundred micrometers at best, using ultramicroscopy even centimeter sized objects like whole mouse embryos can be reconstructed with micrometer resolution. This(More)
Ultramicroscopy (UM) is a powerful imaging technique that achieves precise and accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of intact macroscopic specimens with micrometer resolution. It was developed for specimens in the size range of ∼1-15 mm, such as whole mouse brains, mouse embryos, mouse organs, and Drosophila melanogaster. In UM, the specimen is(More)
BACKGROUND Patterning and differentiation of developing musculatures require elaborate networks of transcriptional regulation. In Drosophila, significant progress has been made into identifying the regulators of muscle development and defining their interactive networks. One major family of transcription factors involved in these processes consists of(More)
Flying insects oscillate their wings at high frequencies of up to 1,000 Hz and produce large mechanical forces of 80 W per kilogram of muscle. They utilize a pair of perpendicularly oriented indirect flight muscles that contain fibrillar, stretch-activated myofibres. In contrast, all other, more slowly contracting, insect body muscles have a tubular muscle(More)
As recently shown, ultramicroscopy (UM) allows 3D-visualization of even large microscopic structures with microm resolution. Thus, it can be applied to anatomical studies of numerous biological and medical specimens. We reconstructed the three-dimensional architecture of tomato-lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum) stained vascular networks by UM in whole mouse(More)
Ultramicroscopy allows for the 3D reconstruction of centimeter sized samples with a spatial resolution of several micrometers. Nevertheless, in poorly cleared or very large specimens the images may suffer from blurring and low contrast levels. To address these problems, ultramicroscopy was combined with the principle of confocal microscopy using a slowly(More)