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In this review, we provide a current reference on disease resistance in insect societies. We start with the genetics of immunity in the context of behavioral and physiological processes and scale up levels of biological organization until we reach populations. A significant component of this review focuses on Apis mellifera and its role as a model system(More)
Influenza (or " flu ") leads to the hospitalization of more than 200,000 people yearly and results in 36,000 deaths from flu or flu-related complications in the United States (15), striking both the elderly and infant populations particularly hard (24). Two members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, the influenza A and B viruses, are the primary causes of this(More)
In the modeling of infectious disease spread within explicit social contact networks, previous studies have predominantly assumed that the effects of shifting social associations within groups are small. These models have utilized static approximations of contact networks. We examine this assumption by modeling disease spread within dynamic networks where(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood vaccination remains the focus of heated public debate. Parents struggle to understand the potential risks associated with vaccination but both parents and physicians assume that they understand the risks associated with infection. This study was done to characterise how modern vaccination practices have altered patient risks from(More)
There are multiple approaches to sensitivity analysis used to identify the age-(or stage-) specific rate of reproduction or survival that most affects population growth—all of which involve evaluating effects on k, the dominant eigenvalue of the Leslie matrix. Management recommendations generated by these approaches can be difficult to determine, in part(More)
Identifying the mechanisms of colony reproduction is essential to understanding the sociobiology of honey bees. Although several proximate causes leading to the initiation of queen rearing – an essential prerequisite to swarming – have been proposed, none have received unequivocal empirical support. Here we model the main proximate hypotheses (colony size,(More)
Simulation models are of increasing importance within the field of applied epidemiology. However, very little can be done to validate such models or to tailor their use to incorporate important human behaviours. In a recent incident in the virtual world of online gaming, the accidental inclusion of a disease-like phenomenon provided an excellent example of(More)
Understanding the origin of disease resistance in social insects is difficult due to the lack of well-established phylogenies of presocial and eusocial species and the absence of extant basal and intermediate forms. Moreover, comprehensive accounts of infection-control traits in social insect lineages are not available. Therefore, to explore the evolution(More)
Recent research has focused on the role of physiological stress in species conservation and population persistence. However, it is currently unknown how much stress individuals can withstand before negative impacts on population size will be detectable. In order to generate testable predictions to address this lack, we created a set of theoretical models(More)
Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only(More)