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Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cells. Herein, we report that IRF4 is also crucial for the development and function of an interleukin-9 (IL-9)-producing CD4(+) T cell subset designated Th9. IRF4-deficient CD4(+) T cells failed to develop into IL-9-producing Th9 cells, and IRF4-specific(More)
Interleukin (IL)-22 is an effector cytokine, which acts primarily on epithelial cells in the skin, gut, liver and lung. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties have been reported for IL-22 depending on the tissue and disease model. In a murine model of allergic airway inflammation, we found that IL-22 is predominantly produced by innate lymphoid cells in(More)
Ticks developed a multitude of different immune evasion strategies to obtain a blood meal. Sialostatin L is an immunosuppressive cysteine protease inhibitor present in the saliva of the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we demonstrate that sialostatin L strongly inhibits the production of IL-9 by Th9 cells. Because we could show recently that(More)
Atopic asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that has taken on epidemic proportions in the industrialized world. The increase in asthma rates has been linked epidemiologically to the rapid disappearance of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that persistently colonizes the human stomach, from Western societies. In this study, we have utilized(More)
Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited(More)
BACKGROUND The migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lungs to the regional lymph nodes is necessary for the development of allergic airway disease. Following activation, mast cells release a variety of stored or de novo-produced inflammatory mediators, several of them being capable of activating DCs. In this study, the role of mast cells on DC(More)
Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg cells) are crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. We have previously shown that a key mechanism of their suppressive action is based on a contact-dependent transfer of cAMP from nTreg cells to responder T cells. Herein, we further elucidate the important role of cAMP for the suppressive properties(More)
BACKGROUND Based on their potency to control allergic diseases, regulatory T (Treg) cells represent a promising target for novel strategies to interfere with allergic airway inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that stimulation of the CD4 molecule on human Treg cells activates their suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo. OBJECTIVE We sought(More)
Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a unique T-cell lineage that is endowed with the ability to actively suppress immune responses. Therefore, approaches to modulate Treg function in vivo could provide ways to enhance or reduce immune responses and lead to novel therapies. Here we show that the CD4 binding human(More)