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Lambda Interferon (IFN-λ), a Type III IFN, Is Induced by Viruses and IFNs and Displays Potent Antiviral Activity against Select Virus Infections In Vivo
ABSTRACT Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-λ1Expand
Type III Interferon (IFN) Induces a Type I IFN-Like Response in a Restricted Subset of Cells through Signaling Pathways Involving both the Jak-STAT Pathway and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A detailed comparison of signal transduction initiated by type I and type III IFN is described and it is found that typeIII IFN relies strongly upon both p38 and JNK MAP kinases for gene induction. Expand
An Important Role for Type III Interferon (IFN-λ/IL-28) in TLR-Induced Antiviral Activity1
Type III IFN to target a specific subset of cells and to contribute to the antiviral response evoked by TLRs, and it is shown that TLR-activated antiviral defense requires expression of IL-28Rα only on nonhemopoietic cells. Expand
Type I Interferon Production during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Is Controlled by Cell-Type-Specific Viral Recognition through Toll-Like Receptor 9, the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein
It is found that entry-dependent IFN induction also required the presence of viral genomic DNA, and HSV-induced IFN-α/β production was dependent on both viral entry and replication, and ablated in cells unable to signal through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathway. Expand
IFN-lambda: novel antiviral cytokines.
A novel class of cytokines was discovered and named IFN-lambda (alternatively type III IFN or interleukin-28/29 [IL- 28/29]), based onIFN-like antiviral activity and induction of typical IFn-inducible genes, which is discussed. Expand
Expression of Type III Interferon (IFN) in the Vaginal Mucosa Is Mediated Primarily by Dendritic Cells and Displays Stronger Dependence on NF-κB than Type I IFNs
It is reported that different PAMPs induce type I and III IFN expression at different ratios after mucosal administration in the vaginas of mice and that Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) stimulation evokes a particularly strong IFN-λ response, which is essential for optimal antiviral protection. Expand
IFN-λ: Novel Antiviral Cytokines
The first line of defense against viral infections is mediated by interferons (IFN)s, which are produced rapidly by the infected host. Type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) are known to combat viruses both directl...
Type III IFNs: New layers of complexity in innate antiviral immunity
Type III IFNs (also known as IFN‐λ or interleukin 28/29) represent a class of novel cytokines with biological activities similar to the type I IFNs, but seem to have a more specialized role in antiviral defense by exerting host‐protection primarily at epithelial surfaces. Expand
Characterisation of a multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolate recovered from blood of a patient in Denmark using whole-genome sequencing.
A patient undergoing extensive abdominal surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy due to primary adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon with peritoneal carcinomatosis and bacteraemia with a multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolate is described. Expand
Age-Dependent Role for CCR5 in Antiviral Host Defense against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2
This study shows that CCR5 plays an age-dependent role in host defense against HSV-2 by supporting both the innate and adaptive immune response. Expand