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Acetylcholine (ACh) in the vertebrate retina affects the response properties of many ganglion cells, including those that display directional selectivity. Three beta and eight alpha subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been purified and antibodies have been raised against many of them. Here we describe biochemical and(More)
Therapies targeting glioma cells that diffusely infiltrate normal brain are highly sought after. Our aim was to identify novel approaches to this problem using glioma spheroid migration assays. Lithium, a currently approved drug for the treatment of bipolar illnesses, has not been previously examined in the context of glioma migration. We found that lithium(More)
The effects of intraocular injections of ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A), an irreversible inhibitor of choline uptake, on the rabbit retina were assessed electrophysiologically, pharmacologically, anatomically, and behaviorally. Survival times from 1 day to 30 days were investigated. After 24 h, the shortest time tested, the directional(More)
Oncolytic viruses are genetically engineered viruses that are designed to kill cancer cells while doing minimal damage to normal healthy tissue. After being injected into a tumor, they infect cancer cells, multiply inside them, and when a cancer cell is killed they move on to spread and infect other cancer cells. Chondroitinase ABC (Chase-ABC) is a(More)
As a part of ongoing efforts to understand the cholinergic circuitry in the mammalian retina, we studied the coexpression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1), or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity in the rabbit retina. Double-label experiments with monoclonal(More)
Starburst amacrine cells in the macaque retina were studied by electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. We found that these amacrine cells make a type of synapse not described previously; they are presynaptic to axon terminals of bipolar cells. We also confirmed that starburst amacrine cells are presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites and amacrine cell(More)
Cholinergic agents affect the light responses of many ganglion cells (GCs) in the mammalian retina by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Whereas retinal neurons that express beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs have been characterized in the rabbit retina, expression patterns of other nAChR subtypes remain unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the(More)
The light-evoked release of acetylcholine (ACh) affects the responses of many retinal ganglion cells, in part via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). nAChRs that contain beta2alpha3 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been identified and localized in the rabbit retina; these nAChRs are recognized by the monoclonal antibody mAb210. We(More)
A GABA- or glycine-induced increase in Cl(-) permeability can produce either a depolarization or hyperpolarization, depending on the Cl(-) equilibrium potential. It has been shown that retinal neurons express the chloride cotransporters, Na-K-2Cl (NKCC) and K-Cl (KCC), the primary molecular mechanisms that control the intracellular Cl(-) concentration. We(More)
SapC-DOPS is a novel nanotherapeutic that has been shown to target and induce cell death in a variety of cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). GBM is a primary brain tumor known to frequently demonstrate resistance to apoptosis-inducing therapeutics. Here we explore the mode of action for SapC-DOPS in GBM, a treatment being developed by Bexion(More)