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Acetylcholine (ACh) in the vertebrate retina affects the response properties of many ganglion cells, including those that display directional selectivity. Three beta and eight alpha subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been purified and antibodies have been raised against many of them. Here we describe biochemical and(More)
The effects of intraocular injections of ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A), an irreversible inhibitor of choline uptake, on the rabbit retina were assessed electrophysiologically, pharmacologically, anatomically, and behaviorally. Survival times from 1 day to 30 days were investigated. After 24 h, the shortest time tested, the directional(More)
Starburst amacrine cells in the macaque retina were studied by electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. We found that these amacrine cells make a type of synapse not described previously; they are presynaptic to axon terminals of bipolar cells. We also confirmed that starburst amacrine cells are presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites and amacrine cell(More)
Cholinergic agents affect the light responses of many ganglion cells (GCs) in the mammalian retina by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Whereas retinal neurons that express beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs have been characterized in the rabbit retina, expression patterns of other nAChR subtypes remain unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the(More)
The light-evoked release of acetylcholine (ACh) affects the responses of many retinal ganglion cells, in part via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). nAChRs that contain beta2alpha3 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been identified and localized in the rabbit retina; these nAChRs are recognized by the monoclonal antibody mAb210. We(More)
As a part of ongoing efforts to understand the cholinergic circuitry in the mammalian retina, we studied the coexpression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1), or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity in the rabbit retina. Double-label experiments with monoclonal(More)
A GABA- or glycine-induced increase in Cl(-) permeability can produce either a depolarization or hyperpolarization, depending on the Cl(-) equilibrium potential. It has been shown that retinal neurons express the chloride cotransporters, Na-K-2Cl (NKCC) and K-Cl (KCC), the primary molecular mechanisms that control the intracellular Cl(-) concentration. We(More)
The developing taste buds of vallate papillae were studied with electron microscope in rats during the first 7 days after birth. Two types of cells--light and dark--are identified in the taste buds of a one day old animal. The apical parts of dark cells are characterized by numerous dark granules. A distinguishing feature of light cells is the presence of(More)
Electron microscopic studies have been made on the developing taste buds in fungiform and vallate papillae of prenatal rats. Three stages of differentiation of these buds are described. The first stage is characterized by presence of the nervous fibers in the connective tissue of the papillae and dense granules of various size, as well as dense-cored(More)
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