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BACKGROUND Abnormal levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) have been reported in patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and stroke, all of which are conditions that are associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized the following: (1) CD40 ligand (CD40L)-related indexes (ie, platelet(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Britain is concentrated in inner-city areas such as Sandwell, which is home to a diverse multi-ethnic population. Current guidance for CVD risk screening is not established, nor are there specific details for ethnic minorities. Given the disparity in equitable healthcare for these groups, we developed(More)
BACKGROUND The disease presentation of chronic heart failure (CHF) is considered to progress with metabolic deterioration, underlined by changes in adipose associated hormones (adipocytokines). However, little is known about ethnic variations of adipocytokines amongst CHF patients, in particular South Asians, who are at an increased risk of CHF. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE Serum testosterone measurement is an integral part of the endocrine assessment of men. Little is known about its variation in relation to migration. We examined within a South Asian group the effect of migration to the UK on androgen levels. DESIGN Circulating testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in 97 Gujarati men resident in(More)
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