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Transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) presents surgeons with challenges of limited tool dexterity. This paper investigates the limitations of dexterity and resection reach and accuracy within the intra-vesicular space of the bladder. The paper assumes the kinematics and geometry of current tools used for TURBT. The study presents a kinematic(More)
In a master-slave telerobotic system controllers are inevitably implemented digitally. In addition to discretization as an outcome of digital implementation, the presence of delays in communication channels compromises stability as well as transparency. Therefore the designer has to take into account both of these factors in designing a stable teleoperator(More)
Minimally invasive surgery in confined spaces often requires the coordinated use of endoscopes and surgical tools while minimizing visual occlusions. In a robotic system such visual occlusion avoidance has to be achieved autonomously while keeping the surgical end effector as close as possible to the center of the field of view of the endoscope. This paper(More)
BACKGROUND Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors (TURBT) is a challenging procedure partly due to resectoscope limitations. To date, manual resection performance has not been fully characterized. This work characterizes manual resection performance in the bladder while analyzing the effect of resection location on accuracy. METHODS Kinematic(More)
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