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S U M M A R Y The CHAMP magnetic field mission is providing highly reliable measurements from which the global lithospheric magnetic field can be determined in unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Using almost 5 yr of data, we derive our fourth generation lithospheric field model termed MF4, which is expanded to spherical harmonic degree and order 90.(More)
The 'geodynamo' in the Earth's liquid outer core produces a magnetic field that dominates the large and medium length scales of the magnetic field observed at the Earth's surface. Here we use data from the currently operating Danish Oersted satellite, and from the US Magsat satellite that operated in 1979/80, to identify and interpret variations in the(More)
The early stage of partner selection is conceptualized as a decision-making process amenable to at least two types of influence: contextual and procedural. An example of contextual influence is the asymmetric dominance effect. According to this effect, introduction in a twoperson field of eligibles of a third eligible, who is dominated (i.e., is inferior)(More)
The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets; it affects the occurrence of subglacial lakes, the onset of ice streams, and mass losses from the ice sheet base. Because direct heat flux measurements in ice-covered regions are difficult to obtain, we developed a method that uses satellite magnetic data to estimate the heat(More)
Satellite magnetic anomaly maps derived by different techniques from Magsat/POGO data vary by more than a factor of 2 in the deduced strength of the lithospheric magnetic field. Here, we present a first anomaly map from new CHAMP scalar magnetic field data. After subtracting a recent Ørsted main and external field model, we remove remaining unmodeled(More)
1Danish National Space Center, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark 2Directorate of Earth Observation Programmes, ESTEC/ESA, Postbus 299, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands 3Geodynamics Branch, GSFC/NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771, U.S.A. 4National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, Boulder, CO 80305-3328, U.S.A. 5GFZ Potsdam, Telegrafenberg,(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective was to evaluate the association between hospital census variables and emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). This may give insights into future strategies to relieve ED crowding. METHODS This multicenter cohort study captured ED LOS and disposition for all ED patients in five hospitals during five 1-week study periods. A(More)
Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international crisis affecting the timeliness and quality of patient care. Boarding of admitted patients in the ED is recognized as a major contributor to ED crowding. The opportunity loss of this time is the benefit or value it could produce if it were used for something else. In crowded EDs, the typical alternative(More)
S U M M A R Y The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) on 2004 December 12 has released the 10th-Generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field—the latest version of a standard mathematical description of the Earth’s main magnetic field used widely in studies of the Earth’s deep interior, its crust, ionosphere and(More)
Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be(More)