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The CHAMP magnetic field mission is providing highly reliable measurements from which the global lithospheric magnetic field can be determined in unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Using almost 5 yr of data, we derive our fourth generation lithospheric field model termed MF4, which is expanded to spherical harmonic degree and order 90. After subtracting(More)
The 'geodynamo' in the Earth's liquid outer core produces a magnetic field that dominates the large and medium length scales of the magnetic field observed at the Earth's surface. Here we use data from the currently operating Danish Oersted satellite, and from the US Magsat satellite that operated in 1979/80, to identify and interpret variations in the(More)
Swarm, a satellite constellation to measure Earth's magnetic field with unpreceded accuracy, has been selected by ESA for launch in 2009. The mission will provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and climate. An(More)
The early stage of partner selection is conceptualized as a decision-making process amenable to at least two types of influence: contextual and procedural. An example of contextual influence is the asymmetric dominance effect. According to this effect, introduction in a two-person field of eligibles of a third eligible, who is domi nated (i.e., is inferior)(More)
The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets; it affects the occurrence of subglacial lakes, the onset of ice streams, and mass losses from the ice sheet base. Because direct heat flux measurements in ice-covered regions are difficult to obtain, we developed a method that uses satellite magnetic data to estimate the heat(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective was to evaluate the association between hospital census variables and emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). This may give insights into future strategies to relieve ED crowding. METHODS This multicenter cohort study captured ED LOS and disposition for all ED patients in five hospitals during five 1-week study periods. A(More)
Satellite magnetic anomaly maps derived by different techniques from Magsat/POGO data vary by more than a factor of 2 in the deduced strength of the lithospheric magnetic field. Here, we present a first anomaly map from new CHAMP scalar magnetic field data. After subtracting a recent Ørsted main and external field model, we remove remaining unmodeled(More)
Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international crisis affecting the timeliness and quality of patient care. Boarding of admitted patients in the ED is recognized as a major contributor to ED crowding. The opportunity loss of this time is the benefit or value it could produce if it were used for something else. In crowded EDs, the typical alternative(More)
version of a standard mathematical description of the Earth's main magnetic field used widely in studies of the Earth's deep interior, its crust, ionosphere and magnetosphere. The coefficients were finalized by a task force of IAGA. The IGRF is the product of a large collaborative effort between magnetic field modellers and the institutes involved in(More)
The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy has recently released the 9th-Generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field—the latest version of a standard mathematical description of the Earth's main magnetic field used widely in studies of the Earth's deep interior, its crust and its ionosphere and magnetosphere. The coefficients were(More)