Nils Krüger

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BACKGROUND The assessment of wrinkle severity is an important evaluation criterion to determine the efficacy of aesthetic treatments. Aim of the present study was to compare Validated Assessment Scales (VAS) and 3D fringe projection (PRIMOS(®) ) for the evaluation of facial wrinkles in men and to determine standard values for each level of the VAS. (More)
Carbon black is an industrially produced particulate form of nearly pure elemental carbon. The basic building blocks of carbon black are (1) primary particles, minute pieces of matter with defined physical boundaries; (2) aggregates, collections of strongly bound or fused particles; and (3) agglomerates, collections of weakly bound aggregates. Industrial(More)
Improved understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the aging face has laid the foundation for adopting an earlier and more comprehensive approach to facial rejuvenation, shifting the focus from individual wrinkle treatment and lift procedures to a holistic paradigm that considers the entire face and its structural framework. This article presents an(More)
BACKGROUND Mid-dermal injection of stabilized hyaluronic acid (HA) is well established as a treatment to reduce the effects of skin aging. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of a stabilized HA-based gel of non-animal origin manufactured using the patented NASHA® technology (Restylane® Vital Light, Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden) administered using a(More)
Radiofrequency (RF) technology has become a standard treatment in aesthetic medicine with many indications due to its versatility, efficacy, and safety. It is used worldwide for cellulite reduction; acne scar revision; and treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids, rosacea, and inflammatory acne in all skin types. However, the most common indication for(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE The most commonly used method to determine the mechanical ability of skin is the creep test using suction chamber devices. Until now, there is no scientific consensus upon which skin deformation parameters and which body sites are particularly suitable to describe age-related changes in human skin mechanics. The aim of this study was to(More)
In recent years, a number of modalities have become available for the noninvasive reduction of adipose tissue, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency, low-level laser, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Each technology employs a different mechanism of action to cause apoptosis or necrosis of the targeted adipocytes. Among these technologies,(More)
The cosmetic use of botulinum toxin (BoNT) is the most common cosmetic procedure performed in the world today. Common adverse events seen in the aesthetic use of the BoNT include swelling, localized bruising, headaches, injection site discomfort, excessive muscle weakness, and unintended paresis of adjacent muscles. BoNT has a wide array of cosmetic uses,(More)
BACKGROUND Whereas the molecular mechanisms of skin aging are well understood, little information is available concerning the clinical onset and lifetime development of facial wrinkles. OBJECTIVES To perform the first systematic evaluation of the lifetime development of facial wrinkles and sex-specific differences using three-dimensional (3D) imaging and(More)
BACKGROUND A distinct trend in aesthetic medicine is the patient's demand for efficient, noninvasive treatments with no downtime. Ongoing with this, these so-called lunchtime procedures are expected to be as safe and painless as possible. A new technique based on a combination of radiofrequency (RF) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) was recently(More)