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Point mutations and deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate in a variety of tissues during ageing in humans, monkeys and rodents. These mutations are unevenly distributed and can accumulate clonally in certain cells, causing a mosaic pattern of respiratory chain deficiency in tissues such as heart, skeletal muscle and brain. In terms of the ageing(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number regulation is altered in several human mtDNA-mutation diseases and it is also important in a variety of normal physiological processes. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is essential for human mtDNA transcription and we demonstrate here that it is also a key regulator of mtDNA copy number. We initially(More)
Transcription factors involved in the specification and differentiation of neurons often continue to be expressed in the adult brain, but remarkably little is known about their late functions. Nurr1, one such transcription factor, is essential for early differentiation of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons but continues to be expressed into adulthood. In(More)
Regulation of mtDNA expression is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and may, in principle, occur at many different levels. The leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing (LRPPRC) protein regulates mitochondrial mRNA stability and an amino-acid substitution of this protein causes the French-Canadian type of Leigh syndrome (LSFC), a(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is heavily implicated in Parkinson disease (PD) as exemplified by the finding of an increased frequency of respiratory chain-deficient dopamine (DA) neurons in affected patients. An inherited form of PD is caused by impaired function of Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase reported to translocate to defective mitochondria in vitro to(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in aging and degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Continuous fission and fusion of mitochondria shapes their morphology and is essential to maintain oxidative phosphorylation. Loss-of-function mutations in PTEN-induced kinase1 (PINK1) or Parkin cause a recessive form of PD and have been linked to(More)
Biogenesis of mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes requires a concerted maturation of both the small (SSU) and large subunit (LSU). We demonstrate here that the m(5)C methyltransferase NSUN4, which forms a complex with MTERF4, is essential in mitochondrial ribosomal biogenesis as mitochondrial translation is abolished in conditional Nsun4 mouse knockouts. Deep(More)
Replication of the mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is dependent on the minimal replisome, consisting of the heterotrimeric mtDNA polymerase (POLG), the hexameric DNA helicase TWINKLE and the tetrameric single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB). TWINKLE has been shown to unwind DNA during the replication process and many disease-causing mutations have(More)
The p.N478D missense mutation in human mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase (mtPAP) has previously been implicated in a form of spastic ataxia with optic atrophy. In this study, we have investigated fibroblast cell lines established from family members. The homozygous mutation resulted in the loss of polyadenylation of all mitochondrial transcripts assessed;(More)
Defects of the oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular of cytochrome-c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), are common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with severe progressive neurological symptoms that usually present during infancy or early childhood. The COX-deficient form of LS is commonly caused(More)