Nikunjkumar Patel

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This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with pharmacodynamics (PDs) models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in(More)
Ketoconazole and posaconazole are both Biopharmaceutics Classification System class 2 drugs (highly permeable, poorly soluble), are structurally similar, and are administered at the same doses. Nevertheless, the duodenal concentration profile and the magnitude of the positive food effect observed for these 2 drugs are markedly different. The aim of this(More)
Estimation of systemic exposure after absorption of any xenobiotic from the skin is very important in development of dermal pharmaceutical products as well as assessing un-intended exposures due to cosmetic products or environmental and occupational compounds. Historically, animal models have been used to evaluate dermal drug absorption before conducting(More)
Quantitative prediction of food effects (FE) upon drug pharmacokinetics, including population variability, in advance of human trials may help with trial design by optimising the number of subjects and sampling times when a clinical study is warranted or by negating the need for conduct of clinical studies. Classification and rule-based systems such as the(More)
There are two main reasons for drug withdrawals at the various levels of the development path – hepatic and cardiac toxicity. The latter one is mainly connected with the proarrhythmic potency and according to the present practice is supposed to be recognized at the pre-clinical (in vitro and animal in vivo) or clinical level (human in vivo studies). There(More)
Postabsorptive factors which can affect systemic drug exposure are assumed to be dependent on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and thus independent of formulation. In contrast, preabsorptive factors, for example, hypochlorhydria, might affect systemic exposure in both an API and a formulation-dependent way. The aim of this study was to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To determine the predictive performance of in silico models using drug-specific preclinical cardiac electrophysiology data to investigate drug-induced arrhythmia risk (e.g. Torsade de pointes (TdP)) in virtual human subjects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To assess drug proarrhythmic risk, we used a set of in vitro electrophysiological(More)
Mechanistic modeling of in vitro data generated from metabolic enzyme systems (viz., liver microsomes, hepatocytes, rCYP enzymes, etc.) facilitates in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIV_E) of metabolic clearance which plays a key role in the successful prediction of clearance in vivo within physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. A similar(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) dissolution, supersaturation, and precipitation of posaconazole, formulated as an acidified (pH 1.6) and neutral (pH 7.1) suspension. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation tool was applied to simulate GI and systemic concentration-time profiles of posaconazole,(More)
Majority of bioequivalence studies are conducted in healthy volunteers. It has been argued that bioequivalence may not necessarily hold true in relevant patient populations due to a variety of reasons which affect one formulation more than the other for instance in achlorhydric patients where elevated gastric pH may lead to differential effects on(More)