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A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper(More)
The alpha and beta tubulin genes of Leishmania major were cloned and used to study the genomic organization, chromosomal location and transcription of tubulin genes in L. major. The number of beta tubulin isogenes was determined by hybridization of probes representing the 5' and 3' ends of the cloned beta tubulin cDNA sequence to genomic Southern blots(More)
The molecular karyotypes of five species of Leishmania were studied by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis (PFGGE) of chromosome-sized DNA bands. Each species exhibits a unique pattern of 22-28 bands in the size range approximately 200-2200 kb whereas strains of one species exhibit similar karyotypes. Analysis of the behaviour of kinetoplast DNA(More)
We have previously described a colorimetric test, designated an amplified DNA assay (ADA), for specific segments of DNA amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), suited to diagnostic applications. This relied on binding the amplified DNA via a sequence in one oligodeoxyribonucleotide (oligo) to the DNA-binding protein GCN4 coated on the wells of a(More)
The life cycle transformation of the protozoan parasite Leishmania from promastigote to amastigote is accompanied by changes in the level of expression of a number of proteins whose function may be necessary for parasite survival in the sandfly vector or mammalian host. To genetically characterize these proteins, we have cloned and characterized cDNA(More)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure has many potential applications in mass screening. We describe here a general assay for colorimetric detection of amplified DNA. The target DNA is first amplified by PCR, and then a second set of oligonucleotides, nested between the first two, is incorporated by three or more PCR cycles. These oligonucleotides(More)
The arrangement of tubulin genes in the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major was studied by genomic Southern blot analysis and mapping of genes to chromosomes fractionated by pulsed field gradient gel (PFG) electrophoresis. alpha-tubulin genes exist as a tandem array of 2.4 kb PstI fragments. beta-tubulin genes are found as a tandem array of(More)
Two monoclonal antibodies have been produced that bind to separate epitopes on the Mr 26,000 glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum worms (Sj26). Both antibodies have been used in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with sera from infected individuals from the Philippines. Relatively high signals were obtained with sera from some, but not all,(More)