Nikos A. Salingaros

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This paper identifies fundamental processes behind urban design. Rules are derived from connective principles in complexity theory, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. Any urban setting can be decomposed into human activity nodes and their interconnections. The connections are then treated as a mathematical problem (here in a qualitative(More)
In this paper we propose numerical measures for evaluating the aesthetic interest of simple patterns. The patterns consist of elements (symbols, pixels, etc) in regular square arrays. The measures depend on two characteristics of the patterns: the number of different types of element, and the number of symmetries in their arrangement. We define two(More)
Human beings are apparently tuned to prefer an environment that has the self-similar properties of a fractal. Furthermore, as different types of fractals are characterized by what is known as their “fractal dimension” D , we respond best to “mid-range” fractals where D is between 1.3 and 1.5. In such fractal environments, our body automatically dampens its(More)
Human artifacts, ranging from small objects all the way up to large buildings and cities, display a variety and range of subdivisions. Repeating stnictural and design elements of the same size will define a particular scale. Most pleasing designs obey an inverse power-law distribution: the product of the relative multiplicity p of a substructure with an(More)
A controversy remains among planners and urban designers about the proper location of the nonresidential core (nucleus) of a neighborhood in relation to thoroughfares. One school of thought suggests that the nucleus should be located along the busiest thoroughfares; a second school holds that it must be some distance away from them – which, because of their(More)
A new way of understanding the growth of urban form leads to practical suggestions for reconstructing a more sustainable suburbia. Combining theoretical results with pragmatic experience — and combining “top-down” controls with “bottomup” processes — we offer guidelines for implementing small-scale changes that eventually lead to large-scale improvements.(More)
Moving towards sustainability and a greater understanding of how human life is connected to the earth’s ecosystem goes beyond mechanistic notions. Totally consistent with the Greek concept of geometry underlying life, increasing evidence shows that the geometry of the natural and built environments is responsible, to a large extent, for the quality of human(More)