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Appropriate cell number and organ size in a multicellular organism are determined by coordinated cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Disruption of these processes can cause cancer. Recent studies have identified the Large tumor suppressor (Lats)/Warts (Wts) protein kinase as a key component of a pathway that controls the coordination between cell(More)
The discovery of microbial expansins emerged from studies of the mechanism of plant cell growth and the molecular basis of plant cell wall extensibility. Expansins are wall-loosening proteins that are universal in the plant kingdom and are also found in a small set of phylogenetically diverse bacteria, fungi, and other organisms, most of which colonize(More)
Although endogenous retroviruses are common across vertebrate genomes, the koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be currently invading the germ line of its host. KoRV is believed to have first infected koalas in northern Australia less than two centuries ago. We examined KoRV in 28 koala museum skins collected in the late 19th and 20th(More)
Seventy-kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are molecular chaperones essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Apart from their indispensable roles in protein homeostasis, specific Hsp70s localize at the plasma membrane and bind to specific lipids. The interaction of Hsp70s with lipids has direct physiological outcomes including lysosomal rescue,(More)
Ca2+ is a universal signal: the dynamic changes in its release and entry trigger a plethora of cellular responses. Central to this schema are members of the phospholipase C (PLC) superfamily, which relay information from the activated receptor to downstream signal cascades by production of second-messenger molecules. Recent studies reveal that, in addition(More)
Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER), which originated before the emergence of animals (approximately 850 million years ago) and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution.(More)
Enzymatic modification is a prevalent mechanism by which bacteria defeat the action of antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are often inactivated by aminoglycoside modifying enzymes encoded by genes present in the chromosome, plasmids, and other genetic elements. The AAC(6')-Ib (aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib) is an enzyme of clinical importance(More)
Immunoglobulins (or antibodies) are an essential element of the jawed vertebrate adaptive immune response system. These molecules have evolved over the past 500 million years and generated highly specialized proteins that recognize an extraordinarily large number of diverse substances, collectively known as antigens. During vertebrate evolution the(More)
The SLC22 family includes organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic carnitine and zwitterion transporters (OCTNs). These are often referred to as drug transporters even though they interact with many endogenous metabolites and signaling molecules (Nigam, S.K., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 14:29-44, 2015).(More)
We recently modeled transient receptor potential (TRP) channels using the Gestalt Domain Detection Algorithm-Basic Local Alignment Tool (GDDA-BLAST), which derives structural, functional, and evolutionary information from primary amino acid sequences using phylogenetic profiles ( Ko, K. D., Hong, Y., Chang, G. S., Bhardwaj, G., van Rossum, D. B., and(More)