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We solved the crystal structure of a secreted protein, EXLX1, encoded by the yoaJ gene of Bacillus subtilis. Its structure is remarkably similar to that of plant beta-expansins (group 1 grass pollen allergens), consisting of 2 tightly packed domains (D1, D2) with a potential polysaccharide-binding surface spanning the 2 domains. Domain D1 has a double-psi(More)
Appropriate cell number and organ size in a multicellular organism are determined by coordinated cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Disruption of these processes can cause cancer. Recent studies have identified the Large tumor suppressor (Lats)/Warts (Wts) protein kinase as a key component of a pathway that controls the coordination between cell(More)
We made use of EXLX1, an expansin from Bacillus subtilis, to investigate protein features essential for its plant cell wall binding and wall loosening activities. We found that the two expansin domains, D1 and D2, need to be linked for wall extension activity and that D2 mediates EXLX1 binding to whole cell walls and to cellulose via distinct residues on(More)
In mammals, the cell surface receptors encoded by the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) regulate the activity of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, as well as that of natural killer cells, and thus provide protection against pathogens and parasites. The chicken genome encodes many Ig-like receptors that are homologous to the LRC receptors. The chicken Ig-like(More)
The HSP70 protein family consists one of the most conserved and important systems for cellular homeostasis under both stress and physiological conditions. The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan phylum. To study these genes in Mollusca, we have isolated and identified five HSP70 genes from Mytilus(More)
We have identified the Hsp70 gene superfamily of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae and investigated the evolution of these genes in comparison with Hsp70 genes from C. elegans, Drosophila, and yeast. The Hsp70 genes are classified into three monophyletic groups according to their subcellular localization, namely, cytoplasm (CYT), endoplasmic reticulum(More)
The discovery of microbial expansins emerged from studies of the mechanism of plant cell growth and the molecular basis of plant cell wall extensibility. Expansins are wall-loosening proteins that are universal in the plant kingdom and are also found in a small set of phylogenetically diverse bacteria, fungi, and other organisms, most of which colonize(More)
The acronym Mhc, major histocompatibility complex, is customarily not allied with topics in evolutionary biology. Here, however, we attempt to demonstrate that the Mhc has much to offer to this discipline and intimate that evolutionary biologists who ignore its contributions miss out on a chance of applying a new approach to vexing questions. One aspect of(More)
In mammals many natural killer (NK) cell receptors, encoded by the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC), regulate the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and provide protection against virus-infected and tumor cells. To investigate the origin of the Ig-like domains encoded by the LRC genes, a subset of C2-type Ig-like domain sequences was compiled from mammals,(More)
The restriction endonuclease pattern of a number of hsp70-homologous clones isolated from a library of heat shock cDNA from Drosophila auraria, a species belonging to the montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group, reveals two types of clones, A and B, differing in a single restriction site. Both types, as well as hsp70-specific probes derived from(More)