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Recommended by Kostas Berberidis Multicarrier modulation is a powerful transmission technique that provides improved performance in various communication fields. A fundamental topic of multicarrier communication systems is the bit and power loading, which is addressed in this article as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization problem. In(More)
— Multilevel-cell (MLC) storage is a typical way for achieving increased capacity and thus lower cost-per-bit in memory technologies. In phase-change memory (PCM), however, MLC storage is seriously hampered by the phenomenon of resistance drift. Reference cells may be used to offer some relief, however their effectiveness is limited due to the stochastic(More)
— Phase-change memory (PCM) has emerged as one among the most promising technologies for next-generation non-volatile solid-state memory. Multilevel storage, namely storage of non-binary information in a memory cell, is a key factor for reducing the total cost-per-bit and thus increasing the competitiveness of PCM technology in the nonvolatile memory(More)
NAND Flash memory is not only the ubiquitous storage medium in consumer applications, but has also started to appear in enterprise storage systems as well. MLC and TLC Flash technology made it possible to store multiple bits in the same silicon area as SLC, thus reducing the cost per amount of data stored. However, at current sub-20nm technology nodes, MLC(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy (TE) is the standard treatment for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Tonsilloplasty (TP) is a new surgical technique that includes partial TE. The purpose of this study was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of TP compared to TE. STUDY(More)
Recent research has implicated a large number of gluten-derived peptides in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, a preponderantly HLA-DQ2-associated disorder. Current evidence indicates that the core of some of those peptides is ten amino acids long, while HLA class II normally accommodates nine amino acids in the binding groove. We have now investigated(More)
The description of globular protein structures as an ensemble of contiguous 'closed loops' or 'tightened end fragments' reveals fold elements crucial for the formation of stable structures and for navigating the very process of protein folding. These are the ends of the loops, which are spatially close to each other but are situated apart in the polypeptide(More)
—This letter presents a new bit-loading algorithm for discrete multitone systems that converges faster to the same bit allocation as the optimal discrete bit-filling and bit-removal methods. The algorithm exploits the differences between the subchannel gain-to-noise ratios in order to determine an initial bit allocation and then performs a multiple-bits(More)