Nikolaj Scharff

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The evolutionary diversification of spiders is attributed to spectacular innovations in silk. Spiders are unique in synthesizing many different kinds of silk, and using silk for a variety of ecological functions throughout their lives, particularly to make prey-catching webs. Here, we construct a broad higher-level phylogeny of spiders combining molecular(More)
Extreme sexual body size dimorphism (SSD), in which males are only a small fraction of the size of the females, occurs only in a few, mostly marine, taxonomic groups. Spiders are the only terrestrial group in which small males are relatively common, particularly among orb-weavers (especially in the families Tetragnathidae and Araneidae) and crab spiders(More)
We investigated the effect of plot-based and unrestricted (plot-less) sampling on an inventory of amegadiverse taxon, spiders, in an Afrotropical forest for the purpose of species richness estimates. We also investigated the efÞciency of human-based sampling methods and the effect of allocation of sampling effort to different samplingmethods to cover(More)
We present the first cladistic analysis focused at the tribal and subfamily le\el of the orbwea\'ing spider family Araneidae. The data matrix of 82 characters scored for 57 araneid genera of 6 subfamilies and 19 tribes (and 13 genera from 8 outgroup families) resulted in 16 slighdy different, most parsimonious trees. Successi\e weighting corroborated 62 of(More)
Terrestrial arthropod surveys and inventories frequently suffer from undersampling bias; common species are over-represented and rare species may be missed entirely. This study compared a rapid (3 days) and intense inventory of spiders from one hectare of a mature beech forest (Fagus sylvaticus) in Hestehaven, Denmark, comprising 8,710 adult spiders of 66(More)
This study infers the higher-level cladistic relationships of linyphiid spiders from five genes (mitochondrial CO1, 16S; nuclear 28S, 18S, histone H3) and morphological data. In total, the character matrix includes 47 taxa: 35 linyphiids representing the currently used subfamilies of Linyphiidae (Stemonyphantinae, Mynogleninae, Erigoninae, and Linyphiinae(More)
Images are paramount in documentation of morphological data. Production and reproduction costs have traditionally limited how many illustrations taxonomy could afford to publish, and much comparative knowledge continues to be lost as generations turn over. Now digital images are cheaply produced and easily disseminated electronically but pose problems in(More)
The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureediagen. n., ParadoneaLawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A(More)
Very few studies have addressed the linyphiid fauna of Australia. Most of the existing taxonomic work on Australian linyphiids consists of isolated species descriptions (e.g., Rainbow 1912) or at most are based on small number of species also described outside a revisionary context (e.g., Wunderlich 1976) (but see van Helsdingen 1972 for a revision of the(More)
We combine information about the evolutionary history and distributional patterns of the genus Saintpaulia H. Wendl. (Gesneriaceae; 'African violets') to elucidate the factors and processes behind the accumulation of species in tropical montane areas of high biodiversity concentration. We find that high levels of biodiversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains(More)