Nikolai P. Skiba

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The structure of a heterotrimeric G protein reveals the mechanism of the nucleotide-dependent engagement of the alpha and beta gamma subunits that regulates their interaction with receptor and effector molecules. The interaction involves two distinct interfaces and dramatically alters the conformation of the alpha but not of the beta gamma subunits. The(More)
Both the alpha and betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) communicate signals from receptors to effectors. Gbetagamma subunits can regulate a diverse array of effectors, including ion channels and enzymes. Galpha subunits bound to guanine diphosphate (Galpha-GDP) inhibit signal transduction through Gbetagamma(More)
The photoreceptor-specific G protein transducin acts as a molecular switch, stimulating the activity of its downstream effector in its GTP-bound form and inactivating the effector upon GTP hydrolysis. This activity makes the rate of transducin GTPase an essential factor in determining the duration of photoresponse in vertebrate rods and cones. In(More)
The R7 subfamily of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins is represented by four members broadly expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Here we report that in the brain all four R7 proteins form tight complexes with a previously unidentified protein, which we call the R7-binding protein or R7BP. We initially identified R7BP as a protein(More)
RGS proteins regulate the duration of G protein signaling by increasing the rate of GTP hydrolysis on G protein alpha subunits. The complex of RGS9 with type 5 G protein beta subunit (G beta 5) is abundant in photoreceptors, where it stimulates the GTPase activity of transducin. An important functional feature of RGS9-G beta 5 is its ability to activate(More)
Light causes massive translocation of G-protein transducin from the light-sensitive outer segment compartment of the rod photoreceptor cell. Remarkably, significant translocation is observed only when the light intensity exceeds a critical threshold level. We addressed the nature of this threshold using a series of mutant mice and found that the threshold(More)
Photoreceptors are compartmentalized neurons in which all proteins responsible for evoking visual signals are confined to the outer segment. Yet, the mechanisms responsible for establishing and maintaining photoreceptor compartmentalization are poorly understood. Here we investigated the targeting of two related membrane proteins, R9AP and syntaxin 3, one(More)
Phosducin and phosducin-like protein regulate G protein signaling pathways by binding the betagamma subunit complex (Gbetagamma) and blocking Gbetagamma association with Galpha subunits, effector enzymes, or membranes. Both proteins are composed of two structurally independent domains, each constituting approximately half of the molecule. We investigated(More)
The photoreceptor G-protein, transducin, belongs to the class of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins that transfer information from activated seven-span membrane receptors to effector enzymes or ion channels. Like other G-proteins, transducin acts as a molecular clock. It is activated by photoexcited rhodopsin which catalyzes the exchange of(More)
The interaction between the GTP-bound form of the transducin alpha-subunit (G alpha t) and the gamma-subunit (P gamma) of cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is a key event in effector activation during photon signal transduction. The carboxyl-terminal half of P gamma is involved in interaction with G alpha t as well as in inhibition of PDE activity. Here we have(More)