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Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic comparison of traditional risk assessment approaches with those applying toxicogenomics has never been done. We conducted a case study to evaluate the utility of toxicogenomics in the risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-studied carcinogen, for(More)
Constituting an integral part of a heme's porphyrin ring, iron is essential for supplying cells and tissues with oxygen. Given tight links between oxygen delivery and iron availability, it is not surprising that iron deprivation and oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) have very similar consequences at the molecular level. Under hypoxia, the expression of major(More)
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-studied environmental compound that requires metabolic activation to have a carcinogenic effect. The neurotoxicity of BaP has received considerably less attention than its carcinogenicity. Environmental exposure to BaP correlates with impaired learning and memory in adults, and poor neurodevelopment in children. We carried out(More)
Reliable quantification of gene and protein expression has potential to contribute significantly to the characterization of hypothesized modes of action (MOA) or adverse outcome pathways for critical effects of toxicants. Quantitative analysis of gene expression by benchmark dose (BMD) modeling has been facilitated by the development of effective software(More)
Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) is the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) examined to date. We investigated the immunotoxicity of DBC, manifested as spleen atrophy, following acute exposure of adult MutaMouse males by oral gavage. Mice were exposed to 0, 2.0, 6.2, or 20.0 mg DBC /kg-bw per day, for 3 days. Genotoxic endpoints (DBC-DNA(More)
The "cap'n'collar" bZIP transcription factor Nrf1 heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins to bind to the Antioxidant Response Element/Electrophile Response Element to transactivate antioxidant enzyme, phase 2 detoxification enzyme and proteasome subunit gene expression. Nrf1 specifically regulates pathways in lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism,(More)
BACKGROUND Nrf1 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 1) is a transcription factor mediating cellular responses to xenobiotic and pro-oxidant stress. Nrf1 regulates the transcription of many stress-related genes through the electrophile response elements (EpREs) located in their promoter regions. Despite its potential importance in human(More)
Many regulatory agencies are exploring ways to integrate toxicogenomic data into their chemical risk assessments. The major challenge lies in determining how to distill the complex data produced by high-content, multi-dose gene expression studies into quantitative information. It has been proposed that benchmark dose (BMD) values derived from toxicogenomics(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins for baby bottles, liners of canned food, and many other consumer products. Previously, BPA has been shown to reduce the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, which may contribute to oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanism of the BPA-mediated effect upon(More)
The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk(More)