Nikolai Ignatiev

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Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are(More)
The recent identification of large deposits of sulphates by remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on the basis of observations by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board(More)
We report a detection of methane in the martian atmosphere by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard the Mars Express spacecraft. The global average methane mixing ratio is found to be 10 +/- 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). However, the mixing ratio varies between 0 and 30 ppbv over the planet. The source of methane could be either biogenic or(More)
Venus is completely covered by a thick cloud layer, of which the upper part is composed of sulphuric acid and some unknown aerosols. The cloud tops are in fast retrograde rotation (super-rotation), but the factors responsible for this super-rotation are unknown. Here we report observations of Venus with the Venus Monitoring Camera on board the Venus Express(More)
Venus has no seasons, slow rotation and a very massive atmosphere, which is mainly carbon dioxide with clouds primarily of sulphuric acid droplets. Infrared observations by previous missions to Venus revealed a bright 'dipole' feature surrounded by a cold 'collar' at its north pole. The polar dipole is a 'double-eye' feature at the centre of a vast vortex(More)
The upper atmosphere of a planet is a transition region in which energy is transferred between the deeper atmosphere and outer space. Molecular emissions from the upper atmosphere (90-120 km altitude) of Venus can be used to investigate the energetics and to trace the circulation of this hitherto little-studied region. Previous spacecraft and ground-based(More)
The interaction of natural α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins (CDs) with 14 hydrophobic ionic moieties of ionic liquids (ILs) was systematically examined in dilute aqueous solutions using isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy. The studied cationic and anionic moieties involved some recently developed heavily fluorinated structures, as(More)
A convenient synthesis and a full characterization of the strong acid bis[bis(pentafluoroethyl)phosphinyl]imide and some of its salts M (+)N[(C 2F 5) 2P(O)] 2 (-), M = Na, K, Cs, Ag, Me 4N, are presented. Their thermal (mp, T dec.) and spectroscopic (IR, Raman, NMR) properties are discussed. A single crystal structure of [Me 4N][N{P(O)(C 2F 5) 2} 2] has(More)
The industrial product (C(2)F(5))(3)PF(2) is transformed into the phosphinic acid chloride (C(2)F(5))(2)P(O)Cl, which reacts with an excess of Bu(3)SnH in a clean, multistep reaction to give the stannyl derivative (C(2)F(5))(2)POSnBu(3). Subsequent treatment with gaseous HBr leads to the formation of (C(2)F(5))(2)POH, which is isolated in 70 % yield.(More)