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Within the present experimental working it has been shown that in the vicinity of naphione (ion-exchange membrane) the water refraction coefficient grows approximately by a factor of 1.1 in comparison with its value in a liquid. The refractive coefficient changes at the wavelength of about 50 microns. The effect of the refractive coefficient is measured by(More)
It is shown that water contains defects in the form of heterogeneous optical breakdown centers. Long-living complexes composed of gas and liquid molecules may serve as nuclei for such centers. A new technique for removing dissolved gas from water is developed. It is based on a "helium washing" routine. The structure of helium-washed water is very different(More)
Results of experiments with dynamic light scattering, phase microscopy, and polarimetric scatterometry allow us to claim that long-living gas nanobubbles and the clusters composed of such nanobubbles are generated spontaneously in an aqueous solution of salt, saturated with dissolved gas (say, atmospheric air). The characteristic sizes of both nanobubbles(More)
Results of experiments with laser modulation interference microscopy and the Mueller-matrix scatterometry show that macroscopic scatterers of light waves are present in doubly distilled water free of external solid impurities. The experimental data can be interpreted using a computational model of micron-scale clusters composed of polydisperse air bubbles(More)
Results of experiments combining laser modulation interference microscopy and Mueller matrix scatterometry show that macroscopic scatterers of light are present in liquids free of external solid impurities. Experimental data on distilled water and aqueous NaCl solutions of various concentrations as well as physiological saline solution are reported. The(More)
A droplet formation in aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has been experimentally detected at the submicrometer scale using two independent laser diagnostic techniques (dynamic light scattering and laser phase microscopy) and described in terms of THF-water intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It is shown that the nanodroplets have a mean size of 300(More)
A qualitative model of the nucleation of stable bubbles in water at room temperature is suggested. This model is completely based on the property of the affinity of water at the nanometer scale; it is shown that under certain conditions the extent of disorder in a liquid starts growing, which results in a spontaneous decrease of the local density of the(More)
A quantitative model of ion-stabilized gas bubbles is suggested. Charging the bubbles by the ions, which are capable of adsorption, and the screening by a cloud of counter-ions, which are less absorptable, is modeled. It is shown that, subject to the charge of bubble, two regimes of such screening can be realized. For low-charged bubbles, the screening is(More)
Ion-stabilized nanobubbles in bulk aqueous solutions of various electrolytes were investigated. To understand the ion-specific mechanism of nanobubble stabilization, an approach based on the Poisson--Boltzmann equation at the nanobubble interface and in the near-surface layer was developed. It has been shown that the stabilization of nanobubbles is realized(More)
Ion-stabilized gas nanobubbles (the so-termed "bubstons") and their clusters are investigated in bulk aqueous solutions of NaCl at different ion concentrations by four independent laser diagnostic methods. It turned out that in the range of NaCl concentration 10(-6) < C < 1 M the radius of bubston remains virtually unchanged at a value of 100 nm. Bubstons(More)