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Exchange factors for ARF GTPases (ARF-GEFs) regulate vesicle trafficking in a variety of organisms. The Arabidopsis protein GNOM is a brefeldin A (BFA) sensitive ARF-GEF that is required for the proper polar localization of PIN1, a candidate transporter of the plant hormone auxin. Mutations in GNOM lead to developmental defects that resemble those caused by(More)
Polar transport of the phytohormone auxin mediates various processes in plant growth and development, such as apical dominance, tropisms, vascular patterning and axis formation. This view is based largely on the effects of polar auxin transport inhibitors. These compounds disrupt auxin efflux from the cell but their mode of action is unknown. It is thought(More)
The plant hormone auxin is transported in a polar manner along the shoot-root axis, which requires efflux carriers such as PIN1. Asymmetric localization of PIN1 develops from a random distribution in Arabidopsis early embryogenesis. Coordinated polar localization of PIN1 is defective in gnom embryos. GNOM is a membrane-associated guanine-nucleotide exchange(More)
Plant membrane compartments and trafficking pathways are highly complex, and are often distinct from those of animals and fungi. Progress has been made in defining trafficking in plants using transient expression systems. However, many processes require a precise understanding of plant membrane trafficking in a developmental context, and in diverse,(More)
The LRR receptor serine/threonine kinases are a major eukaryotic receptor family, for which the central regulatory mechanism of endosomal trafficking remains largely unadressed. We show that the steroid receptor BRI1 localizes to both plasma membrane and early endosomal compartments, even when observed at low, endogenous expression levels, and that its(More)
One of the mechanisms by which signalling molecules regulate cellular behaviour is modulating subcellular protein translocation. This mode of regulation is often based on specialized vesicle trafficking, termed constitutive cycling, which consists of repeated internalization and recycling of proteins to and from the plasma membrane. No such mechanism of(More)
Plants constantly adjust their repertoire of plasma membrane proteins that mediates transduction of environmental and developmental signals as well as transport of ions, nutrients, and hormones. The importance of regulated secretory and endocytic trafficking is becoming increasingly clear; however, our knowledge of the compartments and molecular machinery(More)
The Arabidopsis GNOM gene encodes an ARF GDP/GTP exchange factor involved in embryonic axis formation and polar localisation of the auxin efflux regulator PIN1. To examine whether GNOM also plays a role in post-embryonic development and to clarify its involvement in auxin transport, we have characterised newly isolated weak gnom alleles as well as(More)
Brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants, regulate the growth and differentiation of plants throughout their life cycle. Over the past several years, genetic and biochemical approaches have yielded great progress in understanding BR signaling. Unlike their animal counterparts, BRs are perceived at the plasma membrane by direct(More)
Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases (ARF-GEFs) regulate vesicle formation in time and space by activating ARF substrates on distinct donor membranes. Mammalian GBF1 (ref. 2) and yeast Gea1/2 (ref. 3) ARF-GEFs act at Golgi membranes, regulating COPI-coated vesicle formation. In contrast, their Arabidopsis thaliana homologue(More)