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Active exchangers dissipate the gradient of one substrate to accumulate nutrients, export xenobiotics and maintain cellular homeostasis. Mechanistic studies have suggested that two fundamental properties are shared by all exchangers: substrate binding is antagonistic, and coupling is maintained by preventing shuttling of the empty transporter. The CLC(More)
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated Na+ channels expressed in the nervous system, where they are involved in learning, fear behaviors, neurodegeneration, and pain sensation. In this work, we study the role in pH sensing of two regions of the ectodomain enriched in acidic residues: the acidic pocket, which faces the outside of the protein(More)
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