Niklaus Denier

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The association of white matter (WM) lesions and grey matter (GM) atrophy is a feature in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of WM lesions, their relations to regional GM changes and the underlying dynamics are unclear. Here we combined parametric and non-parametric voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to clarify(More)
Prevention of global gray matter (GM) volume changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an objective in clinical trials, but the effect of immunomodulatory medication on regional GM atrophy progression is unclear. MRIs from 86 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) followed up for 24 months were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. An analysis of(More)
Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic(More)
Schizophrenia is a major mental illness that is characterized by psychosis, social withdrawal, and cognitive impairment. High comorbidity rates with substance use disorders have consistently been found - especially with abuse of cannabis and psychostimulants. While the role of these drugs in the onset of psychosis and schizophrenia has received much(More)
Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by the compulsion to seek and use heroin. Heroin itself has a strong potential to produce subjective experiences characterized by intense euphoria, relaxation and release from craving. The neurofunctional foundations of these perceived effects are not well known. In this study, we have(More)
Structure and function are closely related in the healthy human brain. In patients with chronic heroin exposure, brain imaging studies have identified long-lasting changes in gray matter (GM) volume. More recently, we showed that acute application of heroin in dependent patients results in hypoperfusion of fronto-temporal areas compared with the placebo(More)
The neural mechanisms of heroin addiction are still incompletely understood, even though modern neuroimaging techniques offer insights into disease-related changes in vivo. While changes on cortical structure have been reported in heroin addiction, evidence from subcortical areas remains underrepresented. Functional imaging studies revealed that the brain(More)
The compulsion to seek and use heroin is frequently driven by stress and craving during drug-cue exposure. Although previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that craving is mediated by increased prefrontal cortex activity, it remains unknown how heroin administration modulates the prefrontal cortex response. This study examines the acute effects of(More)
We conducted a systematic review on resting state cerebral blood flow activities found in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and during acute effects of cannabinoids and opioids, mental states that can be profoundly different from normal functioning. The main goal was to identify connections of cerebral blood flow measure and regional brain activity patterns(More)
Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates(More)