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High-speed, large-scale three-dimensional (3D) imaging of neuronal activity poses a major challenge in neuroscience. Here we demonstrate simultaneous functional imaging of neuronal activity at single-neuron resolution in an entire Caenorhabditis elegans and in larval zebrafish brain. Our technique captures the dynamics of spiking neurons in volumes of ∼700(More)
We recently developed a method called expansion microscopy, in which preserved biological specimens are physically magnified by embedding them in a densely crosslinked polyelectrolyte gel, anchoring key labels or biomolecules to the gel, mechanically homogenizing the specimen, and then swelling the gel-specimen composite by ∼4.5× in linear dimension. Here(More)
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques have become invaluable, high-throughput tools to study gene expression. However, the need to measure gene expression patterns quickly and affordably, useful for applications such as stem cell biomanufacturing requiring real-time observation and control, has not been adequately met by rapid qPCR instrumentation to date. We(More)
Micropipettes are hollow glass needles with tip openings ranging from less than 1 lm up to 75 lm. Based on the size of the inner diameter of the micropipettes, they can be used for applications such as patch clamping, microinjection, and cell transfer. In the state-ofthe-art fabrication of micropipettes, a skilled individual is able to produce about 2 4(More)
A large array of neuroscientific techniques, including in vivo electrophysiology, two-photon imaging, optogenetics, lesions, and microdialysis, require access to the brain through the skull. Ideally, the necessary craniotomies could be performed in a repeatable and automated fashion, without damaging the underlying brain tissue. Here we report that when(More)
Sensitive identification of the etiology of viral diseases is key to implementing appropriate prevention and treatment. The gold standard for virus identification is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique that allows for highly specific and sensitive detection of pathogens by exponentially amplifying a specific region of DNA from as little as a(More)
Microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems have set milestones for small volume (100 nL-5 μL), amplification speed (100-400 s), and on-chip integration of upstream and downstream sample handling including purification and electrophoretic separation functionality. In practice, the microfluidic chips in these systems require either insertion of(More)
Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift,(More)
INTRODUCTION Controlling the temperature of microfluidic sample volumes is essential for a wide domain of applications, including genetic sample preparation using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [1-3], cell lysis [4,5], protein denaturation [6], heat shock DNA transformation [7], enzyme reaction control [8], and numerous other chemical and biological(More)
1 Closed-loop, ultraprecise, automated craniotomies 2 3 Authors 4 Nikita Pak, Joshua H. Siegle, Justin P. Kinney, Daniel J. Denman, Timothy J. Blanche, 5 Edward S. Boyden 6 7 1 Media Lab and McGovern Institute, Departments of Biological Engineering and Brain and 8 Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. 9 2(More)