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Primary ciliary dyskinesia most often arises from loss of the dynein motors that power ciliary beating. Here we show that DNAAF3 (also known as PF22), a previously uncharacterized protein, is essential for the preassembly of dyneins into complexes before their transport into cilia. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the human DNAAF3 gene in(More)
Cilia and flagella are highly conserved organelles that have diverse roles in cell motility and sensing extracellular signals. Motility defects in cilia and flagella often result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. However, the mechanisms underlying cilia formation and function, and in particular the cytoplasmic assembly of dyneins that power ciliary motility,(More)
Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation and establishing laterality. Cilia motility defects cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, MIM244400), a disorder affecting 1:15,000-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive ciliary bending. Despite progress in(More)
Mucociliary clearance in the adult trachea is well characterized, but there are limited data in newborns. Cilia-generated flow was quantified across longitudinal sections of mouse trachea from birth through postnatal day (PND) 28 by tracking fluorescent microsphere speed and directionality. The percentage of ciliated tracheal epithelial cells, as determined(More)
Respiratory epithelial cells carry multiple motile cilia. Defective ciliary motility results in reduced mucociliary airway clearance in a destructive chronic airway disease referred to as primary ciliary dyskinesia. Immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy of respiratory cells allows visualization of proteins along the length of the ciliary axoneme and distinct(More)
The motive forces for ciliary movement are generated by large multiprotein complexes referred to as outer dynein arms (ODAs), which are preassembled in the cytoplasm prior to transport to the ciliary axonemal compartment. In humans, defects in structural components, docking complexes, or cytoplasmic assembly factors can cause primary ciliary dyskinesia(More)
A diverse family of cytoskeletal dynein motors powers various cellular transport systems, including axonemal dyneins generating the force for ciliary and flagellar beating essential to movement of extracellular fluids and of cells through fluid. Multisubunit outer dynein arm (ODA) motor complexes, produced and preassembled in the cytosol, are transported to(More)
While there is a good conceptual framework of dorsoventral and anterioposterior axes formation in most vertebrate groups, understanding of left-right axis initiation is fragmentary. Diverse mechanisms have been implied to contribute to the earliest steps of left-right asymmetry, including small molecule signals, gap junctional communication, membrane(More)
Rationale: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is under diagnosed and underestimated. Most clinical research has used some form of questionnaires to capture data but none has been critically evaluated particularly with respect to its end-user feasibility and utility. Objective: To critically appraise a clinical data collection questionnaire for PCD used in a(More)
In vertebrates, establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry is dependent on cilia-driven fluid flow within the LR organizer. Mutations in CCDC11 disrupt LR asymmetry in humans, but how the gene functions in LR patterning is presently unknown. We describe a patient with situs inversus totalis carrying homozygous loss-of-function mutations in CCDC11. We show(More)
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