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Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are multi-protein macromolecular 'machines' that have a central function in the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens by directly mediating the secretion and translocation of bacterial proteins (termed effectors) into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Most of the 20 unique structural components constituting this(More)
The fla gene locus of Methanococcus voltae encodes the major structural components of the flagellum as well as other flagellar-related proteins. The flaHIJ genes have been found in all flagellated archaea, suggesting a central role in flagella biogenesis. FlaI shares similarity with the type II and type IV secretion NTPases (such as PilB, VirB11 and TadA),(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an intestinal attaching and effacing pathogen that utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for the delivery of effectors into host cells. The chaperone CesT has been shown to bind and stabilize the type III translocated effectors Tir and Map in the bacterial cytoplasm prior to their delivery into host cells.(More)
Many significant bacterial pathogens use a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells to disrupt specific cellular functions, enabling disease progression. The injection of these effectors into host cells is often dependent on dedicated chaperones within the bacterial cell. In this report, we demonstrate that the enteropathogenic(More)
The archaeal flagellum is a unique motility apparatus distinct in composition and likely in assembly from the bacterial flagellum. Gene families comprised of multiple flagellin genes co-transcribed with a number of conserved, archaeal-specific accessory genes have been identified in several archaea. However, no homologues of any bacterial genes involved in(More)
Archaeal flagellins are made initially as preproteins with short, positively charged leader peptides. Analysis of all available archaeal preflagellin sequences indicates that the –1 position is always held by a glycine while the –2 and –3 positions are almost always held by charged amino acids. To evaluate the importance of these and other amino acids in(More)
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) maintain an extracellular lifestyle and use a type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into the host cytosol. These effectors manipulate host pathways to favor bacterial replication and survival. NleA is an EHEC/EPEC- and related species-specific translocated effector(More)
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 uses a specialized protein translocation apparatus, the type III secretion system (TTSS), to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effectors interfere with host cytoskeletal pathways and signalling cascades to facilitate bacterial survival and replication and promote disease. The genes(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen associated with gastroenteritis. Two V. parahaemolyticus type 3 secretion systems, T3SS-1 and T3SS-2, secrete effector proteins and have been implicated in host-cell cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity, respectively. Vibrio parahaemolyticus T3SS-1 substrates have been identified, although many predicted(More)
Isolated flagellar filaments of Sulfolobus shibatae were 15 nm in diameter, and they were composed of two major flagellins which have M(r)s of 31,000 and 33,000 and which stained positively for glycoprotein. The flagellar filaments of Thermoplasma volcanium were 12 nm in diameter and were composed of one major flagellin which has an M(r) of 41,000 and which(More)