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Cells of Escherichia coli under conditions of certain cellular stresses excrete attractants. Cells of chemotactic strains respond to these excreted signaling molecules by moving up their local concentration gradients and forming different types of stable multicellular structures. Multicellular clusters are the simplest among these structures. Fluorescence(More)
In mammals, cardiac development proceeds from the formation of the linear heart tube, through complex looping and septation, all the while increasing in mass to provide the oxygen delivery demands of embryonic growth. The developing heart must orchestrate regional differences in cardiomyocyte proliferation to control cardiac morphogenesis. During(More)
We present a novel technique to accurately position single cells on a substrate using negative dielectrophoresis and cell-substrate adhesion. The cells are suspended in physiological media throughout the patterning process. We also verify the biocompatibility of this method by demonstrating that the patterned cells proliferate and show normal morphology. We(More)
An improved understanding of the role of extracellular factors in controlling the embryonic stem cell (ESC) phenotype will aid the development of cell-based therapies. While the role of extracellular factors in controlling the pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been the subject of much investigation, the identity and role of(More)
Cell-cell interactions consisting of diffusible signaling and cell-cell contact (juxtacrine signaling) are important in numerous biological processes such as tumor growth, stem cell differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. A number of methods currently exist to modulate cell signaling in vitro. One method of modulating the total amount of diffusible(More)
The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction(More)
Pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocyte-like cells (hPSC-HLCs) are an attractive alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) used in applications ranging from therapeutics to drug safety testing studies. It would be critical to improve and maintain mature hepatocyte functions of the hPSC-HLCs, especially for long-term studies. If 3D culture systems(More)
Microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are tandem iterations of one to six base pairs, non-randomly distributed throughout prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Limited knowledge is available about distribution of microsatellites in single stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, particularly vertebrate infecting viruses. We studied microsatellite(More)
A common assumption made when performing in vitro cellular assays is that the concentration of substances in the culture system is uniform. However, since the cells that internalize and secrete substances reside at the bottom of the well, it is conceivable that a concentration gradient could arise across the fluid layer. Importantly, the concentration of a(More)