Learn More
BACKGROUND We systematically reviewed observational studies of early mortality post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, as defined by the World Bank, to summarize what is known. METHODS AND FINDINGS Studies published in English between January 1996 and December(More)
BACKGROUND X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) has variants with widely different outcomes, hampering clinical counseling and evaluation of therapies. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the degree to which MRI patterns can predict lesion progression. METHODS Two hundred six boys and men with cerebral X-ALD (median age 12.2 years, mean age 18.5 years, age range 1.7(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established. METHODS The study population was 783 HIV-infected Indian(More)
BACKGROUND UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to assess whether daily nevirapine given to breastfed infants(More)
BACKGROUND Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with increased HIV mortality, but prospective studies assessing treatment outcomes after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in resource-limited settings are lacking. METHODS A case-cohort study (N = 411) was nested within a randomized cART trial of 1571 cART-naive adults in(More)
Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control study (49 pairs of infants and their HIV-infected mothers)(More)
BACKGROUND Daily nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN) trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP) or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV(More)
We evaluated tuberculosis (TB) screening among 799 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in India. Eleven (1.4%) had active TB. The negative predictive value of screening using cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss was 99.3%. Tuberculin skin test and targeted chest radiography provided no substantial benefit. TB symptom screening,(More)
BACKGROUND Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. METHODS We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions of samples with protective antibody concentration(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to compare immunologic effectiveness of nevirapine and efavirenz based antiretroviral therapy in antiretroviral naïve HIV-1 infected Indian patients. DESIGN AND METHODS Study was an observational, non-randomized, longitudinal cohort. Antiretroviral naive HIV-1 infected patients receiving efavirenz + 2NRTI (n=254) and nevirapine(More)