Nikhil A Gupte

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BACKGROUND We systematically reviewed observational studies of early mortality post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, as defined by the World Bank, to summarize what is known. METHODS AND FINDINGS Studies published in English between January 1996 and December(More)
Access to safe breast-feeding alternatives for HIV-infected mothers and their infants in many settings is limited. We compared the rates of early postpartum hospitalization of infants born to HIV-infected mothers using different infant-feeding practices in a large government hospital in Pune, India. From March 1, 2000 to November 30, 2001, infants born to(More)
BACKGROUND X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) has variants with widely different outcomes, hampering clinical counseling and evaluation of therapies. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the degree to which MRI patterns can predict lesion progression. METHODS Two hundred six boys and men with cerebral X-ALD (median age 12.2 years, mean age 18.5 years, age range 1.7(More)
BACKGROUND UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to assess whether daily nevirapine given to breastfed infants(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. METHODS Using data from a(More)
BACKGROUND The risk for occupational exposure to HIV has been well characterized in the developed world, but limited information is available about this transmission risk in resource-constrained settings facing the largest burden of HIV infection. In addition, the feasibility and utilization of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) programs in these settings are(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess effectiveness and safety of a generic fixed-dose combination of tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) among HIV-1-infected patients in Western India. METHODS Antiretroviral (ARV)-naive and experienced (thymidine analog nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [tNRTI] replaced by TDF) patients were started on a regimen(More)
BACKGROUND Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The sensitivity of the widely-used tuberculin skin test (TST), however,(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of anemia (serum hemoglobin <10 g/dL) and assess zidovudine use and toxicity in HIV-positive pregnant women in India. METHODS From 2002 through 2006, 24,105 pregnant women in Pune were screened for HIV and anemia. As part of an infant prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial, enrolled HIV-positive(More)
We evaluated tuberculosis (TB) screening among 799 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in India. Eleven (1.4%) had active TB. The negative predictive value of screening using cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss was 99.3%. Tuberculin skin test and targeted chest radiography provided no substantial benefit. TB symptom screening,(More)