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Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) normally give rise to bone, cartilage, and mesenchymal cells. Recently, bone marrow cells have been shown to have the capacity to differentiate into myocytes, hepatocytes, and glial cells. We now demonstrate that human and mouse BMSC can be induced to differentiate into neural cells under experimental cell culture(More)
The expression of the Fos proto-oncogene protein has been used as an anatomical marker of activated brain areas. Detection of Fos immunoreactivity can provide information about the sites of action of various stimuli at the level of single cell resolution. Following intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (16% w/v), Fos immunoreactivity was induced in several(More)
The cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), can modulate both immune and neuroendocrine events. Alteration of IL-1 beta expression by exogenous factors, such as morphine, may affect the neuro-endocrine-immune axis. Brain sections from male rats implanted with either morphine or placebo pellets were stained for IL-1 beta immunoreactivity. The results(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE M1 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) represent an attractive drug target for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, the discovery of subtype-selective mAChR agonists has been hampered by the high degree of conservation of the orthosteric ACh-binding site(More)
Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs serve a multitude of functions in cells. NEAT1 RNA is a highly abundant 4 kb lncRNA in nuclei, and coincides with paraspeckles, nuclear domains that control sequestration of paraspeckle proteins. We examined NEAT1 RNA levels and its function in 3T3-L1 cells during differentiation to adipocytes. Levels of NEAT1 transcript, measured(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms from the primary injury that can become aggravated over time because of secondary cell death. In the present in vivo study, we examined the beneficial effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in a controlled cortical impact model of mild TBI using young (6 months) and(More)
It is thought that the physiological actions of endogenous cannabinoid arachidonylethanolamide (AEA), as well as exogenous cannabinoids such as Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are mediated by two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, which have recently been characterized. Injection of AEA leads to alterations in motor behavior and endocrine(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine involved in a variety of biological activities. It has been hypothesized that the immunomodulatory effects of IL-1 are the result of both direct action on immune cells and indirect action on a regulatory cascade mediated through the hypothalamus. Chronic exposure to substances of abuse, such as morphine, appears to(More)
The development of adipocytes from their progenitor cells requires the action of growth factors signaling to transcription factors to induce the expression of adipogenic proteins leading to the accumulation of lipid droplets, induction of glucose transport, and secretion of adipokines signaling metabolic events throughout the body. Murine 3T3-L1(More)
The Alzheimer's disease-related peptide beta(1-40) amyloid self-associates to form fibrils exhibiting a morphology characteristic of amyloidogenic proteins. The mechanism of this fibrillization process has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study we have immobilized the beta(1-40) amyloid to flat gold surfaces using thiol-based self-assembled monolayers.(More)