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DHEA, together with DHEAS, is the most abundant steroid in the blood of young adult humans. Levels in humans decline with age and during certain types of illness or stress. We have found that DHEA(S) can prevent or reduce the neurotoxic actions in the hippocampus of the glutamate agonists N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) both in vitro and in vivo or(More)
Transmembrane protein 166 (TMEM166) is a lysosomal/endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein found in various species where it acts as a regulator of programmed cell death, mediating both autophagy and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of TMEM166 following MCAO injury in rats to determine whether the structural damages following(More)
OBJECTIVE recent trials have shown Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), an active component of a well known Chinese medicine Panax Ginseng, plays a significant role in improving the complications seen after an ischemic brain event. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 as a treatment modality to reduce brain edema, reduce arterial vasospasm, and improve(More)
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury(More)
Medical gases are pharmaceutical molecules which offer solutions to a wide array of medical needs. This can range from use in burn and stroke victims to hypoxia therapy in children. More specifically however, gases such as oxygen, helium, xenon, and hydrogen have recently come under increased exploration for their potential theraputic use with various brain(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD.(More)
Cerebral edema is a devastating consequence of brain injury leading to cerebral blood flow compromise and worsening parenchyma damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V(1a) receptor inhibition following an intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) brain injury in mice and closely assessed the role it played in cerebral(More)
Capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist, has recently been shown to provide neuroprotection against brain injury in experimental adult models of cerebral ischemia. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the way in which capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 modulation could attenuate damage in an experimental hypoxic-ischemic (HI)(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role as both a physiologic and physical barrier in regulating the movement of water from the vasculature to the brain. During a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the BBB is disrupted by a variety of mediators, one of which can result in endothelial cell death. As a result, in the present study, we investigated the(More)
This perspective commentary summarized the stroke pathophysiology evolution, especially the focus in the past on neuroprotection and neurovascular protection and highlighted the newer term for stroke pathophysiology: vascular neural network. Emphasis is on the role of venules and veins after an acute stroke and as potential treatment targets. Vein drainage(More)