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DHEA, together with DHEAS, is the most abundant steroid in the blood of young adult humans. Levels in humans decline with age and during certain types of illness or stress. We have found that DHEA(S) can prevent or reduce the neurotoxic actions in the hippocampus of the glutamate agonists N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) both in vitro and in vivo or(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD.(More)
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury(More)
Transmembrane protein 166 (TMEM166) is a lysosomal/endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein found in various species where it acts as a regulator of programmed cell death, mediating both autophagy and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of TMEM166 following MCAO injury in rats to determine whether the structural damages following(More)
Medical gases are pharmaceutical molecules which offer solutions to a wide array of medical needs. This can range from use in burn and stroke victims to hypoxia therapy in children. More specifically however, gases such as oxygen, helium, xenon, and hydrogen have recently come under increased exploration for their potential theraputic use with various brain(More)
OBJECTIVE recent trials have shown Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), an active component of a well known Chinese medicine Panax Ginseng, plays a significant role in improving the complications seen after an ischemic brain event. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 as a treatment modality to reduce brain edema, reduce arterial vasospasm, and improve(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role as both a physiologic and physical barrier in regulating the movement of water from the vasculature to the brain. During a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the BBB is disrupted by a variety of mediators, one of which can result in endothelial cell death. As a result, in the present study, we investigated the(More)
PURPOSE To examine the mtDNA control regions in normal and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) retinas. To identify the mtDNA variations associated with AMD. METHODS Retinas from 10 normal and 11 AMD globes were isolated and analyzed for mtDNA rearrangements by long extension-polymerase chain reaction (LX-PCR) and for the nature and frequency of(More)
Unlike the uniform disease progression in inbred animals, polycystic kidney disease (PKD) progression within human families can be highly variable. This may be due to environmental or genetic factors or both. To determine if PKD severity can be influenced by modifier genes, we carried out an intercross between DBA/2-pcy/pcy and Mus m. castaneous involving(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a vital role in regulating growth, proliferation, survival, and protein synthesis among cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the mTOR pathway following subarachnoid hemorrhage brain injury--specifically investigating its ability to mediate the(More)