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RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic dysregulated response to alveolar epithelial injury with differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts into matrix-secreting myofibroblasts resulting in lung scaring. The prognosis is poor and there are no effective therapies or reliable biomarkers. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside binding lectin(More)
RATIONALE Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with no currently effective pharmacological therapies. Neutrophils have been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI, and there has been significant research into the mechanisms of early neutrophil recruitment, but those controlling the later phases of neutrophil(More)
Increased levels of the neutrophil chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 in the lungs of severe trauma patients can predict subsequent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because the lungs of brain-dead organ donors can contain high levels of IL-8, we hypothesized that this may predispose to early graft failure in the recipient after lung(More)
GCs are highly effective in treating a wide range of inflammatory diseases but are limited in their ability to control neutrophilic lung inflammation in conditions such as COPD. Neutrophil apoptosis, a central feature of inflammation resolution, is delayed in response to microenvironmental cues, such as hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines, present at(More)
BACKGROUND Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective(More)
Phagocytes not only coordinate acute inflammation and host defense at mucosal sites, but also contribute to tissue damage. Respiratory infection causes a globally significant disease burden and frequently progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome, a devastating inflammatory condition characterized by neutrophil recruitment and accumulation of(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease of unknown aetiology. It has a very poor prognosis and no effective treatment. There are two major barriers to the development of novel treatments in IPF: an incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis and the fact that current models of the disease are poorly predictive of therapeutic(More)
Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-8 occur in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in various lung diseases. Cytokine gene expression is controlled by transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) which can be activated by a number of stimuli including the oxidants prevent. It was hypothesized that(More)
The co-ordinated recruitment of monocyte subpopulations, neutrophils and regulatory T-cells (Tregs) during the early stages of human acute lung inflammation remains poorly understood. We therefore performed a detailed characterisation of these lineages in the blood and lungs in a model of human acute lung inflammation. Healthy volunteers inhaled(More)
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