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RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic dysregulated response to alveolar epithelial injury with differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts into matrix-secreting myofibroblasts resulting in lung scaring. The prognosis is poor and there are no effective therapies or reliable biomarkers. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside binding lectin(More)
BACKGROUND Ten years ago we published a study of 50 adults with severe community acquired pneumonia admitted to our intensive care unit and subsequently introduced guidelines for the management of severe community acquired pneumonia which are largely in accordance with those of the British Thoracic Society. The results of a follow up study are now reported(More)
Increased levels of the neutrophil chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 in the lungs of severe trauma patients can predict subsequent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Because the lungs of brain-dead organ donors can contain high levels of IL-8, we hypothesized that this may predispose to early graft failure in the recipient after lung(More)
RATIONALE Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with no currently effective pharmacological therapies. Neutrophils have been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI, and there has been significant research into the mechanisms of early neutrophil recruitment, but those controlling the later phases of neutrophil(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a potent proinflammatory mediator that has been shown to potentiate lethal endotoxemia and to play a potentially important regulatory role in human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have investigated whether eosinophils are an important source of MIF and whether MIF may be involved in the(More)
The menstrual cycle is a complex interaction of sex steroids, prostanoids, and cytokines that lead to coordinated tissue degradation, regeneration and repair. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) plays critical roles in cellular responses to hypoxia, the generation of an inflammatory response and vasculogenesis through transcriptional(More)
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common extra-articular manifestation associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Early case reports of serious respiratory adverse events (SRAEs) following treatment with anti-TNF agents have led to concerns about biologic therapy in patients with RA-associated ILD(More)
BACKGROUND Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective(More)
Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-8 occur in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in various lung diseases. Cytokine gene expression is controlled by transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) which can be activated by a number of stimuli including the oxidants prevent. It was hypothesized that(More)