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Histological evaluation of endometrium has been the gold standard for clinical diagnosis and management of women with endometrial disorders. However, several recent studies have questioned the accuracy and utility of such evaluation, mainly because of significant intra- and interobserver variations in histological interpretation. To examine the possibility(More)
Estrogen action is dependent upon the presence of specific ligand-activated receptors in target tissues. The aim of the present experiments was to compare the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) with that of ERalpha in full thickness endometrial samples (from the superficial to the basal zone) obtained from both(More)
Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model(More)
During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important for successful embryonic implantation, including establishing(More)
Members of the Wnt family of signaling molecules are important in cell specification and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and targeted gene deletion of Wnt-7a in mice results in complete absence of uterine glands and infertility. To assess potential roles of the Wnt family in human endometrium, an endocrine-responsive tissue, we investigated in the(More)
Antiprogestins (APs) inhibit estradiol (E(2))-stimulated endometrial growth in women and nonhuman primates, but the mechanism of this "antiestrogenic" action is unknown. Here, we report that APs up-regulate endometrial androgen receptor (AR) in both women and macaques, an effect that might play a role in the antiproliferative effects of APs on the primate(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses two PROTEIN-L-ISOASPARTATE METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) genes encoding enzymes (EC 2.1.1.77) capable of converting uncoded l-isoaspartyl residues, arising spontaneously at l-asparaginyl and l-aspartyl sites in proteins, to l-aspartate. PIMT2 produces at least eight transcripts by using four transcriptional initiation(More)
The relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the pattern of vascular proliferation in the rhesus macaque endometrium has not been studied. In this report, we used in situ hybridization to evaluate VEGF, VEGF receptor type 1 and VEGF receptor type 2 mRNA expression during hormonally regulated menstrual cycles in(More)
Although much is known about the biology of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its cognate receptors (VEGFRs), VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, little is known about the roles of the VEGFRs neuropilin (NP)-1 and NP-2 in the primate endometrium. In this study, we investigated the cellular localization and hormonal regulation of NP-1 and NP-2 mRNA by in situ(More)
There is strong evidence that overproduction of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta is a major cause of vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia through sFLT1-dependent antagonism of VEGF. However, the cause of placental sFLT1 upregulation is not known. Here we demonstrated that in women with preeclampsia, sFLT1 is upregulated in(More)