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The protective efficacy (PE) of B subunit killed whole-cell (BS-WC) and killed whole-cell-only (WC) oral cholera vaccines was assessed in a randomised double-blind field trial among children aged 2-15 years and women over 15 years in rural Bangladesh. Among the 62 285 subjects who received three doses of BS-WC, WC, or Escherichia coli K12 strain placebo,(More)
The B subunit (BS) of cholera toxin and that of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are antigenically similar. We therefore assessed whether a combined cholera toxin BS/whole-cell (BS-WC) oral vaccine against cholera conferred cross-protection against LT-producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind(More)
We assessed the protective efficacy (PE) of three doses of B subunit-killed whole cell (BS-WC) and killed whole cell-only (WC) oral cholera vaccines in a randomized, double-blind trial among 62,285 children and women residing in rural Bangladesh. After one complete year of surveillance, 110 cases of cholera were detected in the placebo group, 52 in the WC(More)
Rotaviruses collected in Bangladesh during 1985 to 1986 were culture adapted and used in a comparative serotyping study with three groups of monoclonal antibodies, all of which reacted with the major neutralization protein (VP7) of serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4. The goals were to determine which monoclonal antibodies most accurately predicted the serotype and why(More)
PURPOSE The study aims to identify the career preferences of the final year medical student as well as to determine gender differences in career choices. PARTICIPANTS The participants were 232 final year MMBS students of the first five classes of Ziauddin Medical University. METHOD A questionnaire was designed that identified student's choice of(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. METHODS This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi,(More)
A previous study showed that intergenogroup reassortants of human rotaviruses can persist in nature (R.L. Ward, O. Nakagomi, D.R. Knowlton, M.M. McNeal, T. Nakagomi, J.D. Clemens, D.A. Sack, and G.M. Schiff, J. Virol. 64:3219-3225, 1990), but the mechanisms involved in their formation and selection had not been determined. In this study it was shown that,(More)
Group A rotaviruses collected between 1985 and 1986 during comprehensive surveillance of treated diarrheal episodes occurring in a rural Bangladesh population were culture adapted and characterized by electropherotype, serotype, and subgroup. Of 454 episodes of rotavirus-associated diarrhea, rotaviruses were culture adapted from 381 (84%), and 335 contained(More)
This case-control study sought to determine whether protection against clinically significant rotavirus diarrhea in children aged 4-35 months correlated with titers of serum neutralizing antibody and, if so, whether this protection was serotype-specific. Titers of acute-phase sera from 156 cases of treated rotavirus diarrhea in rural Bangladesh were(More)
The clinical characteristics of disease due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were determined in 88 adult males admitted to a hospital in Dacca, Bangladesh, with moderate to severe dehydration. Persons infected with ETEC strains producing both heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxin had more dehydration and acidosis, longer duration of(More)