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This review paper discusses the role of haptics within virtual medical training applications, particularly, where it can be used to aid a practitioner to learn and practice a task. The review summarizes aspects to be considered in the deployment of haptics technologies in medical training. First, both force/torque and tactile feedback hardware solutions(More)
OBJECTIVES Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing(More)
PURPOSE We present here a simulator for interventional radiology focusing on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). This procedure consists of inserting a needle into the biliary tree using fluoroscopy for guidance. METHODS The requirements of the simulator have been driven by a task analysis. The three main components have been identified: the(More)
Interventional Radiology procedures (e.g., angioplasty, embolization, stent graft placement) provide minimally invasive therapy to treat a wide range of conditions. These procedures involve the use of flexible tipped guidewires to advance diagnostic or therapeutic catheters into a patient's vascular or visceral anatomy. This paper presents a real-time(More)
There is growing interest in utilising virtual environments (VEs) in the context of sports. In particular there is a desire to be able to improve sensorimotor skills rather than just using a VE as a tool for strategy analysis, or entertainment. The range of skills required across all different sports is very large and varied. This review of the(More)
This paper presents a virtual environment for training femoral palpation and needle insertion, the opening steps of many interventional radiology procedures. A novel augmented reality simulation called PalpSim has been developed that allows the trainees to feel a virtual patient using their own hands. The palpation step requires both force and tactile(More)
We have used new developments in computer technology and the Internet to create a small program that simulates catheterization of the lateral ventricle. The program can run on most personal computers connected to the Internet. The program allows trainee surgeons to practice the technique with varying degrees of visual feedback--and no risk to the patient.(More)