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This review paper discusses the role of haptics within virtual medical training applications, particularly, where it can be used to aid a practitioner to learn and practice a task. The review summarizes aspects to be considered in the deployment of haptics technologies in medical training. First, both force/torque and tactile feedback hardware solutions(More)
OBJECTIVES Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing(More)
Interventional Radiology procedures (e.g., angioplasty, embolization, stent graft placement) provide minimally invasive therapy to treat a wide range of conditions. These procedures involve the use of flexible tipped guidewires to advance diagnostic or therapeutic catheters into a patient's vascular or visceral anatomy. This paper presents a real-time(More)
This paper presents a virtual environment for training femoral palpation and needle insertion, the opening steps of many interventional radiology procedures. A novel augmented reality simulation called PalpSim has been developed that allows the trainees to feel a virtual patient using their own hands. The palpation step requires both force and tactile(More)
We have used new developments in computer technology and the Internet to create a small program that simulates catheterization of the lateral ventricle. The program can run on most personal computers connected to the Internet. The program allows trainee surgeons to practice the technique with varying degrees of visual feedback--and no risk to the patient.(More)
PURPOSE We present here a simulator for interventional radiology focusing on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). This procedure consists of inserting a needle into the biliary tree using fluoroscopy for guidance. METHODS The requirements of the simulator have been driven by a task analysis. The three main components have been identified: the(More)
Mastoidectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures relating to the petrous bone. In this paper we describe our preliminary results in the realization of a virtual reality mastoidectomy simulator. Our system is designed to work on patient-specific volumetric object models directly derived from 3D CT and MRI images. The paper summarizes the detailed(More)
PURPOSE Training in Interventional Radiology currently uses the apprenticeship model, where clinical and technical skills of invasive procedures are learnt during practice in patients. This apprenticeship training method is increasingly limited by regulatory restrictions on working hours, concerns over patient risk through trainees' inexperience and the(More)