Nigel Timothy Cable

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BACKGROUND Active video games (exergames) increase energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) compared with sedentary video gaming. The physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming in adolescents, and young and older adults has not been documented, nor compared with aerobic exercise. This study compared the physiological cost and enjoyment of(More)
Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear(More)
PURPOSE Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion (i.e., ischemic preconditioning (IPC)) protect against damage after a myocardial infarction. Recent observational data indicate that IPC improves exercise performance. However, no previous study has examined potential underlying mechanisms for this effect of IPC. Therefore, we examined the potential(More)
Ageing is associated with impaired endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) function in human microvessels. We investigated the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise training on physiological and pharmacological NO-mediated microvascular responses in older subjects. NO-mediated vasodilatation was examined in young, older sedentary and older fit(More)
The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical activity involvement decline with age, and the extent to(More)
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is widely used to describe conduit artery endothelial function. The traditional approaches to FMD calculation assess diameter change at arbitrary time points after occluding cuff deflation. The aim of this study was to examine the time course of brachial artery FMD after a 5-minute period of forearm ischemia in 12 young, 12(More)
Studies of the impact of exercise training on arterial adaptation in healthy subjects have produced disparate results. It is possible that some studies failed to detect changes because functional and structural adaptations follow a different time course and may therefore not be detected at discrete time points. To gain insight into the time course of(More)
Endothelial dysfunction is an early atherosclerotic event that precedes clinical symptoms and may also render established plaque vulnerable to rupture. Noninvasive assessment of endothelial function is commonly undertaken using the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique. Some studies indicate that FMD possesses independent prognostic value to predict future(More)
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip(More)
The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is(More)