Nigel S Paneth

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For a variety of reasons, the definition and the classification of cerebral palsy (CP) need to be reconsidered. Modern brain imaging techniques have shed new light on the nature of the underlying brain injury and studies on the neurobiology of and pathology associated with brain development have further explored etiologic mechanisms. It is now recognized(More)
Because of the availability of new knowledge about the neurobiology of developmental brain injury, information that epidemiology and modern brain imaging is providing, the availability of more precise measuring instruments of patient performance, and the increase in studies evaluating the efficacy of therapy for the consequences of injury, the need for(More)
AIM The purpose of this study was to create and validate the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), for use by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP. METHOD An(More)
BACKGROUND Seizures occur in 1 to 2 percent of neonates admitted to an intensive care unit. The treatment is usually with either phenobarbital or phenytoin, but the efficacy of the two drugs has not been compared directly. METHODS From 1990 to 1995, we studied 59 neonates with seizures that were confirmed by electroencephalography. The neonates were(More)
OBJECTIVES To summarize the literature on mortality rates and prevalences of major neurodevelopmental disabilities and to examine trends of these outcomes over time in extremely premature neonates. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE was used to search the English literature for studies published since 1970 reporting on both mortality and disability in infants born at(More)
Low birth weight is a major public health problem in the United States, contributing substantially both to infant mortality and to childhood handicap. The principal determinant of low birth weight in the United States is preterm delivery, a phenomenon of largely unknown etiology. Preterm delivery is more common in the United States than in many other(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence on human semen quality as it relates to exposure to various metals, both essential (e.g., zinc, copper) and nonessential (e.g., cadmium, lead), is inconsistent. Most studies to date used small sample sizes and were unable to account for important covariates. OBJECTIVES Our goal in this study was to assess relationships between exposure(More)
Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and(More)
The short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on breast cancer risk are well documented. Insight into potential biological mechanisms for these associations may be gained by studying breast cancer risk and pregnancy characteristics (e.g., preeclampsia, twining), which may reflect hormone levels during pregnancy. To date, no review has synthesized the(More)
OBJECTIVES The goals were to compare the self-reported, health-related quality of life of former extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight infants at young adulthood and to determine whether there were any changes over time. METHODS A prospective, longitudinal, population-based study with concurrent control subjects was performed. We interviewed(More)