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The diffuse plasma that fills galaxy groups and clusters (the intracluster medium, hereafter ICM) is a by-product of galaxy formation. The present thermal state of this gas results from a competition between gas cooling and heating. The heating comes from two distinct sources: gravitational heating associated with the collapse of the dark matter halo and(More)
We test four commonly used astrophysical simulation codes; Enzo, Flash, Gadget and Hydra, using a suite of numerical problems with analytic initial and final states. Situations similar to the conditions of these tests, a Sod shock, a Sedov blast and both a static and translating King sphere occur commonly in astrophysics, where the accurate treatment of(More)
BACKGROUND The consumption of fresh fruit & vegetable in concentrate form (FVC) have recently become an alternative approach to combating excessive renal acid loads often associated with Western Diets. Additionally, these FVC's have been purported to induce metabolic alkalosis, which perhaps may enhance the blood buffering capacity of an individual.(More)
We use a large suite of carefully controlled full hydrodynamic simulations to study the ram pressure stripping of the hot gaseous halos of galaxies as they fall into massive groups and clusters. The sensitivity of the results to the orbit, total galaxy mass, and galaxy structural properties is explored. For typical structural and orbital parameters, we find(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of introducing a fish protein hydrolysate (PEP) concurrently with carbohydrate (CHO) and whey protein (PRO) on endurance exercise metabolism and performance. METHODS In a randomised, double blind crossover design, 12 male volunteers completed an initial familiarisation followed by three(More)
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